The Guide to Aromatherapy 2

Descriptions of Essential Oils and constituents.

by Jedi Simon and the Scentha Team.

 

Neroli

Botanical Name: Citrus aurantium

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extracted

Color: Coffee Brown

Consistency: Medium

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: Floral, citrusy, sweet, exotic.

Possible Uses: Depression, frigidity, insomnia, mature skin, scars, shock, stress, stretch marks.

Constituents: Linalyl Acetate, Limonene, Linalol, Nerolidol, Geraniol, Alpha-Terpineol, Geranyul Acetate, Neryl Acetate

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Niaouli

Botanical Name: Melaleuca quinquenervia

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Earthy, musty, harsh.

Possible Uses: Aches, acne, bronchitis, colds, coughs, cuts, dull skin, flu, oily skin, sore throat, whooping cough.

Constituents: Cineol, terpineol, pinene, limonene, citrene, terebenethene.

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

 

Nutmeg

Botanical Name: Myristica fragrans

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear

Consistency: Thing

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Rich, spicy, sweet, woody. Similar to the cooking spice, but richer and more fragrant.

Possible Uses: Arthritis, constipation, fatigue, muscle aches, nausea, neralgia, poor circulation, rheumatism, slow digestion.

Constituents: Terpinen-4-ol, Pinene, Sabinene, Cineole, Camphene, Limonene, Myristicin, Alpha Terpenene

Safety Information: If used in large amounts, can cause toxic symptoms such as nausea and tachycardia.

Possible oral toxin (no essential oil should be taken internally without the guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner), possible psychotripic (may affect behavior) and possible carcinogen.

 

 

 

Oakmoss

Botanical Name: Evernia prunastri

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extracted

Color: Light Brown

Consistency: Medium - Thin

Perfumery Note: Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Rich, earthy, woody.

Possible Uses: Perfumery

Constituents: Evernic acid, d-usnic acid, atranorine, chloratronorine.

Safety Information: Use with extreme caution. Dermal sensitizer, toxic, and mucous membrane irritant. Avoid in epilepsy and pregnancy.

 

 

 

Bitter Orange

Botanical Name: Citrus aurantium

Common Method of Extraction: Cold Pressed/Expressed

Color: Orange

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: As the name implies, it has a bitter orange aroma reminiscent of a cross between the sweetness of sweet orange oil and the slight bitterness of grapefruit oil.

Possible Uses: Colds, constipation, dull skin, flatulence, flatulence, flu, gums, mouth, slow digestion, stress.

Constituents: Limonene, myrcene, camphene, pinene, ocimene, cymene.

Safety Information: Phototoxic. Do not use if the area of application will be exposed to sunlight for 24 hours due to its phototoxicity.

 

 

Orange, Sweet

Botanical Name: Citrus sinensis

Common Method of Extraction: Cold Pressed/Expressed

Color: Orange

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Citrusy, sweet, reminiscent of orange peels, but more concentrated.

Possible Uses: Colds, constipation, dull skin, flatulence, flatulence, flu, gums, mouth, slow digestion, stress.

Constituents: Limonene

Safety Information: Lawless reports that a few people have experienced dermatitis from the limonene content of Sweet Orange.

Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

Oregano

Botanical Name: Oreganum vulgare

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Pale Yellow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Medium

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: Herbaceous, sharp.

Possible Uses: Coughs, digestion.

Constituents: Carvacrol, thymol, cymene, caryophyllene, pinene, bisabolene, linalool, borneol, geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, terpinene. [

Safety Information: Skin irritant, mucous membrane irritant, can cause skin irritation.

 

 

Palmarosa (Rose Geranium)

Palmarosa is sometimes referred to as Rose Geranium.

Botanical Name: Cymbopogon martini

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Pale Yellow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: Fresh, floral, sweet, somewhat similar to geranium oil.

 

 

Parsley

Botanical Name: Petroselinum sativum

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Light Yellow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Herbacous, somewhat woody aroma.

Possible Uses: Amenorrhea, arthritis, cellulites, cystitis, frigidity, griping pains, indigestion, rheumatism, toxic build-up. [

Constituents: Apiol, myristicin, tetramethoxyally-benzene, pinene.

Safety Information: Hepatotoxic (toxic to the liver). Abortifacient (can induce abortions). Research that Tisserand refers to indicates that it has a strong abortifacient action. It should be used with extreme caution and avoided with and around pregnant women.

 

 

 

Patchouli

Botanical Name: Pogostemon cablin

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Deep Golden Brown

Consistency: Medium Thick

Perfumery Note: Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Rich, earthy, woody aroma with a nearly hidden fruity note.

Possible Uses: Acne, athlete's foot, chapped skin, dermatitis, eczema, fatigue, frigidity, hair care, insect repellant, mature skin, oily skin, stress.

Constituents: Patchoulol, Esters, Beta-Caryophyllene

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Pepper, Black

Botanical Name: Piper nigrum

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Crisp, fresh, peppercorn aroma.

Possible Uses: Aching muscles, arthritis, chilblains, constipation, muscle cramps, poor circulation, sluggish digestion.

Constituents: Limonene, Pinene, Myrcene, Phellandrene, Beta-caryophyllene, Beta-bisabolene, Sabinene, Linalol, Pinocarveol, Alpha, Terpineol, Camphene, Alpha, Terpenene

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

Peppermint

Botanical Name: Mentha piperita

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: Minty, reminiscent of peppermint candies, but more concentrated. More fragrant than spearmint.

Possible Uses: Asthma, colic, exhaustion, fever, flatulence, headache, nausea, scabies, sinusitis, vertigo.

Constituents: Menthyl Acetate, Menthone, Cineole, Limonene, Phellandrene, Pinene, Beta-Caryophyllene

Safety Information: Avoid in cardiac fibrillation, epilepsy, fever. Mucous membrane irritant and neurotoxic (toxic to the nerves). Some of this information applies to oral use, but is provided for informational purposes (no essential oil should be taken internally without the guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner).

 

 

Petitgrain

Botanical Name: Citrus aurantium

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Fresh, floral, citrusy, lighter in fragrance than neroli and slightly woody.

Possible Uses: Acne, fatigue, oily skin, stress.

Constituents: Linalyl Acetate, Linalol, Nerol, Alpha-Terpineol, Geranyl Acetate, Limonene, Myrcene

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

Pine, Scotch

Botanical Name: Pinus sylvestris

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear

Consistency: Medium and Slightly Oily

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Fresh, woody, earthy, balsamic

Possible Uses: Colds, coughing, flu, rheumatism, sinusitis.

Constituents: Pinene, Limonene, Borneol, Bornyl Acetate, Cineole, Camphene, Myrcene, Phellandrene

Safety Information: Sensitization can occur. [Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils (Rockport, MA: Element Books, 1995), 200.]

Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

Ravensara

Botanical Name: Ravensara aromatica

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Slightly medicinal, eucalyptus-like, slightly sweet with a fruity hint.

Possible Uses: Not formally documented in readily available publications.

Constituents: 1,8-cineole, beta-pinene.

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

Rose

Botanical Name: Rosa damascena

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extracted or Steam Distilled (called Rose Otto)

Color: Deep Red for the Absolute, Light Yellow for the Steam Distillate

Consistency: Thick for the Absolute, Thin for the Steam Distillate

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: strongly floral, sweet.

Possible Uses: Depression, eczema, frigidity, mature skin, menopause, stress.

Constituents of Rose Otto: Citronellol, Geraniol, Nerol, Farnesol, Esters, Rose Oxide, Limonene, Myrcene, Pinene

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Rosemary

Botanical Name: Rosmarinus officinalis

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Fresh, herbaceous, sweet, slightly medicinal.

Possible Uses: Aching muscles, arthritis, dandruff, dull skin, exhaustion, gout, hair care, muscle cramping, neuralgia, poor circulation, rheumatism.

Constituents: Cineole, Pinene, Borneol, Linalol, Alpha-Terpineol, Terpinen-4-ol, Bornyl Acetate, Camphor, Thujone, Camphene, Limonene, Beta-Caryophyllene

Safety Information: Neurotoxic (toxic to the nerves). Avoid in pregnancy. Avoid in epilepsy, fever (no essential oil should be taken internally without the guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner).

Avoid in cases of hypertension.

 

 

Rosewood

Rosewood is sometimes referred to as Bois-de-rose oil.

Botanical Name: Aniba roseodora

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Sweet, woody, fruity, floral aroma.

Possible Uses: Acne, colds, dry skin, dull skin, fever, flu, frigidity, headache, oily skin, scars, sensitive skin, stress, stretch marks.

Constituents: a-pinene, camphene, geraniol, neral, geranial, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, benzaldehyde, linalool oxides, a-terpineol. [

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Sandalwood

Botanical Name: Santalum album

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge

Consistency: Medium - Thick

Perfumery Note: Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Rich, sweet, fragrant yet delicate, woody, floral.

Possible Uses: Bronchitis, chapped skin, depression, dry skin, laryngitis, leucorrhea, oily skin, scars, sensitive skin, stress, stretch marks.

Constituents: Santalols, santyl acetate, santalenes.

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Spearmint

Botanical Name: Mentha spicata

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Minty, slightly fruity aroma that is less bright than peppermint.

Possible Uses: Asthma, exhaustion, fever, flatulence, headache, nausea, scabies, vertigo.

Constituents: a-pinene, B-pinene, carvone, 1,8-cineole, linalool, limonene, myrcene, caryophyllene, menthol.

Safety Information: Mucous membrane irritant.

 

 

 

Spikenard

Botanical Name: Nardostachys jatamansi

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Golden Yellow

Consistency: Medium

Perfumery Note: Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Earthy, woody, harsh, musty.

Possible Uses: Rashes, wrinkles. Constituents: Bornyl acetate, isobornyl valerianate, borneol, patchouli aclochol, terpinyl valerianate.

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Spruce

Botanical Name: Picea mariana

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Fresh, woody, earthy, sweet, with a hint of a fruity note.

Possible Uses: Coughing, depression.

Constituents: Pinenes, limonene, bornyl acetate, tricyclene, phellandrene, myrcrene, thujone, dipentene, cadinene.

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Tagetes

Botanical Name: Tagetes minuta

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Gold

Consistency: Thin - Medium

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Fresh, sweet, floral, slightly fruity.

Possible Uses: Corns, warts.

Constituents: Tagetones, ocimene, myrcene, linalool, limonene, pinenes, carvone, citral, camphene, valeric acid, salicylaldehyde.

Safety Information: Possibly toxic. Use only in moderation

 

 

 

Tangerine

Botanical Name: Citrus reticulata

Common Method of Extraction: Cold Pressed/Expressed

Color: Orange

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Fresh, sweet, citrusy, similar to the brighter aroma of tangerine peels (as compared to orange peels), but more concentrated.

Constituents: a-pinene, myrcene, limonene, y-terpinene, citronellal, linalool, neral, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, geraniol, thymol, carvone.

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Tea Tree, Common

Botanical Name: Melaleuca alternifolia

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Medicinal, fresh, woody, earthy, herbaceous.

Possible Uses: Acne, athlete's foot, candida, chicken pox, cold sores, colds, corns, cuts, flu, insect bites, itching, migraine, oily skin, ringworm, sinusitis, sores, spots, urethritis, warts, whooping cough.

Constituents: Terpinen-4-ol, Alpha-Terpineol, Cineole, Pinene, Alpha Terpenene, Beta-Caryophyllene

Safety Information: May cause sensitization in some.

Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

Thyme

Botanical Name: Thymus vulgaris

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Reddish Brown

Consistency: Medium and Slightly Oily

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Fresh, medicinal, herbaceous.

Possible Uses: Arthritis, colds, cuts, dermatitis, flu, insect bites, laryngitis, lice, muscle aches, oily skin, poor circulation, scabies, sore throat.

Constituents: a-thujene, a-pinene, camphene, B-pinene, p-cymene, a-terpinene, linalool, borneol, B-caryophyllene, thymol, carvacrol.

Safety Information: Avoid in cases of hypertension.

Moderate dermal irritant and strong mucous membrant irritant.

 

 

 

Tobacco

Botanical Name: Nicotania tabacum

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extracted

Color: Deep Brown

Consistency: Medium - Thick

Perfumery Note: Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium

Aromatic Description: Rich, warm, earthy, tobacco-like aroma.

Possible Uses: Perfumery

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

 

Lemon Tea Tree

Botanical Name: Leptospermum petersonii

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Tinge of Yellow

Consistency: Thin

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Lemony, citrusy, bitter.

Possible Uses: Not formally documented in readily available publications.

Constituents: Not formally documented in readily available publications.

Safety Information: Not formally documented in readily available publications.

 

 

Tuberose

Botanical Name: Polianthes tuberosa

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extraction

Color: Deep Orange

Consistency: Medium

Perfumery Note: Top

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: Complex, exotic, sweet, floral.

Possible Uses: Used primarily in perfumery and aromatics.

Constituents: Methyl benzoate, methyl anthranilate, benzyl alcohol, butyric acid, eugenol, nerol, farnesol, geraniol.

Safety Information: Unknown toxicity.

 

 

Vanilla

Botanical Name: Vanilla planifolia

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extracted

Color: Deep Brown

Consistency: Thick

Perfumery Note: Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: Rich, warm, sweet vanilla aroma.

Possible Uses: Perfumery

Constituents: Vanillin, hydroxybenzaldehyde, acetic acid, isobutyric acid, caproic acid, eugenol, furfural.

Safety Information: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils by Julia Lawless does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Vetiver

Botanical Name: Vetiveria zizanoides

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extraction

Color: Golden Brown

Consistency: Thick

Perfumery Note: Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Strong

Aromatic Description: Woody, earthy, herbaceous, spicy almost smoky.

Possible Uses: Acne, arthritis, cuts, depression, exhaustion, insomnia, muscular aches, oily skin, rheumatism, sores, stress.

Constituents: Benzoic acid, vetiverol, furfurol, a-vetivone, B-vetivone, vetivene, vetivenyl vetivenate. [

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

 

Violet Leaf

Botanical Name: Viola odorata

Common Method of Extraction: Solvent Extraction

Color: Dark Green

Consistency: Thick

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Middle - Base

Aromatic Description: Green, earthy, slightly floral in dilution.

Possible Uses: Bronchitis, headache, insomnia, rheumatism, sluggish circulation, sore throat, stress.

Constituents: Nonadienal, parmone, hexyl alcohol, bezyl alcohol.

Safety Information: Essential Oil Safety by Robert Tisserand does not indicate any special precautions when using this oil.

 

 

Yarrow

Botanical Name: Achillea millefolium

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Dark Blue

Consistency: Medium

Perfumery Note: Middle

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Sharp, woody, herbaceous.

Possible Uses: Fever, hair care, hemorrhoids, hypertension, indigestion, insomnia, migraine, scars, stretch marks, varicose veins, wounds.

Constituents: Tricyclene, a-pinene, camphene, B-pinene, sabinene, borneol acetate, 1,8-cineole, y-terpinene, limonene, isoartemisia ketone, borneol, camphor, chamazulene.

Safety Information: Neurotoxic (toxic to the nerves). Avoid in pregnancy. Avoid orally in pregnancy, epilepsy, fever (no essential oil should be taken internally without the guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner).

 

 

 

Ylang Ylang

Botanical Name: Cananga odorata

Common Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled

Color: Clear with a Yellow Tinge

Consistency: Medium

Perfumery Note: Middle/Base

Strength of Initial Aroma: Medium - Strong

Aromatic Description: Fresh, floral, sweet, slightly fruity, fragrant yet delicate.

Possible Uses: Anxiety, depression, frigidity, hypertension, palpitations, stress.

Constituents: Linalol, Farnesol, Geraniol, Geranial, Benzyl Acetate, Geranyl Acetate, Eugenol, Methyl Chavicol, Pinene*Beta-Caryophyllene, Farnasene

Safety Information: Possible sensitization.

Can cause headaches and nausea if used in excess. The owner of AromaWeb has experienced headaches from lengthy use of Ylang Ylang.