Moral dualism is the belief of the great
balance (in eastern and naturalistic religions) or conflict (in western
religions) between the "benevolent" and the "malignant". Lucas mixed the two
points of view creating confusion. Most religious systems have
some form of moral dualism - in western religions, for instance, a conflict between good and evil.
Like ditheism/bitheism, moral dualism
does not imply the absence of
Moral dualism simply implies that there are two moral opposites at work, independent of any interpretation
of what might be "moral" and - unlike ditheism/bitheism - independent of how these may be represented.
For example, Mazdaism (Mazdaen
Zoroastrianism) is both
dualistic and monotheistic (but not monist) since
in that philosophy God—the Creator—is purely good, and the antithesis—which is also uncreated—is an absolute one.
are representative of dualistic and monist philosophies since each has a
supreme and transcendental First Principle from which the two equal-but-opposite
entities then emanate.
This is also true for the lesser-known Christian gnostic religions, such as Bogomils, Catharism, etc. More complex forms of monist dualism also exist, for instance in Hermeticism, where Nous "thought" - that is described to have created man - brings forth both good and evil, depending on whether it receives prompting from God or from the demons.
In theology, 'dualism' may also refer to 'bitheism', 'duotheism' or 'ditheism'. Although ditheism/bitheism imply moral dualism, they are not equivalent: ditheism/bitheism implies (at least) two gods, while moral dualism does not imply any -theism (theos = god) whatsoever.
Both 'bitheism' and 'ditheism' imply a belief in two equally powerful gods with complementary or antonymous properties.
However, while bitheism implies harmony, ditheism implies rivalry and opposition, such as between Good and Evil.
For example, a ditheistic system would be one
in which one god is creative, the other is destructive (cf.
In a bitheistic system, one god could be
male and the other female (cf. duotheism).
However, bitheistic and ditheistic principles are not always so easily contrastable, for instance
in a system where one god is the representative of summer and drought and the other of winter and rain/fertility. Marcionism, a nominally Christian sect (but denounced as a heresy), held that the Old and New Testaments
were the work of two opposing gods: both were First Principles, but of different religions.
Alternatively, dualism can mean the tendency of humans to perceive and understand the world as being divided into two overarching categories.
However that definition is considered a tad controversial. In this sense, it is dualistic when one perceives a tree as a thing separate from everything surrounding it, or when one perceives a "self" that is distinct from the rest of the world.
in actuality has very little to do with Western dualism; instead it represents
the philosophy of balance,
where two opposites co-exist in harmony and are able to transmute into each other. The Taoist religion with its dualistic concept of yin and yang is related to the religions that are both dualistic and monotheistic such as Mazdaism in the sense that the underlying force of nature, the Way, or Tao, is the First Principle which manifests itself through the dual properties of the yin and yang.
In the yin-yang symbol there is a dot of
yin in yang and a dot of yang in yin.
This symbolizes the inter-connectedness of the opposite forces as different aspects of Tao,
the First Principle. Contrast is needed to create a distinguishable reality, without which we would experience nothingness.
Therefore, the independent principles of
yin and yang are actually dependent on one another for each other's
distinguishable existence. The complementary dualistic concept in Taoism
represents the reciprocal interaction throughout nature, related to a
feedback loop, where
opposing forces do not exchange in opposition but instead exchange reciprocally
to promote stabilization similar to
An underlying principle in Taoism states that within every independent entity lies a part of its opposite. Within sickness lies health and vice versa. This is because all opposites are manifestations of the single Tao, and are therefore not independent from one another, but rather a variation of the same unifying force throughout all of nature.
In philosophy of mind, dualism is any of a narrow variety of views about the relationship between mind and matter, which claims that mind and matter are two ontologically separate categories. In particular, mind-body dualism claims that neither the mind nor matter can be reduced to each other in any way, and thus is opposed to materialism in general, and reductive materialism in particular.
Mind-body dualism can exist as substance dualism which claims that the mind and the body are composed of a distinct substance, and as property dualism which claims that there may not be a distinction in substance, but that mental and physical properties are still categorically distinct, and not reducible to each other.
This type of dualism is sometimes referred to as "mind and body" and stands in contrast to philosophical monism, which views mind and matter as being ultimately the same kind of thing. See also Cartesian dualism, substance dualism, epiphenomenalism.
The belief that body and spirit exist as two separate entities was first documented in approximately 1000 B.C. by Zoroastrianism, and has become a very common view to the present day.
During the classical era of
Buddhist philosophy in India,
philosophers such as
Dharmakirti argue for a
between states of consciousness and Buddhist atoms (the basic building blocks that make up reality),
according to "the standard interpretation" of Dharmakirti's Buddhist metaphysics.
Typically in Western philosophy, dualism is considered to be a dualism between mind (nonphysical) and brain (physical), which ultimately involves mind interacting with the physical brain, and therefore also interacting with the micro-particles (basic building blocks) that make up the brain tissue.
Buddhist dualism, in Dharmakirti’s sense, is different in that it is not a dualism between the mind and brain, but rather between states of consciousness (nonphysical) and basic building blocks (according to the Buddhist atomism of Dharmakirti, Buddhist atoms are also nonphysical: they are unstructured points of energy).
Like so many Buddhists from 600-1000 CE, Dharmakirti’s philosophy involved mereological nihilism, meaning that other than states of consciousness, the only things that exist are momentary quantum particles, much like the particles of quantum physics (quarks, electrons, etc.).
In some cultures, people (or also other beings) are believed to have two (or more) kinds of soul. In several cases, one of these souls is associated with body functions (and is sometimes thought to disappear after death), and the other one is able to leave the body (e.g. a shaman's free-soul may be held to be able to undertake a spirit journey). The plethora of soul types may be even more complex.
Correctly distinguishing between Self (Spirit/Consciousness
Purusha) and Matter/Nature
is of central importance to
Samkhya Philosophy elaborates that although Prakriti originates from Purusha, there is a fundamental dualism between
spirit and phenomena that is presented to such Selves by Matter/Nature. Such phenomena of Matter/Nature includes reflections of the intellect, the faculty that makes things personal (the I-Maker/Ahamkara), the instinctual mind (manas),
the capacities to perceive sense data, the capacities to act, the principles of the elements of sense perception, and the gross elements.
These arise when Prakriti is in the presence of a Purusha, and they become enmeshed and entangled when there is mis-identification between Prakriti and Purusha.
False confusion between the Self and what is not the Self is considered the fundamental ignorance that perpetuates bondage in this world. Liberation is sought by becoming aware of such distinctions on a very deep level of personal knowledge, so that one may eventually use the great faculty of the mind -- intellectual reflection (Buddhi/Mahat) -- without mistakenly identifying it with the Purusha, and then the effects of such entanglement will unravel and one will no longer be bound by incarnations or confused by Prakriti.
The Vedanta philosophy is divided into
Dvaita (dualistic) and
Neither propose dualism in consciousness and matter. While Dvaita philosophy recognizes the differences between
Jiva and Ishvara, Advaita philosophy looks at everything as Brahman which has three fundamental attributes
Advaita vedanta insists that the
experiential personal realization of unity of
everything must be achieved.
Until a person achieves such realization, Advaita Vedanta uses the Samkhya dualism of consciousness and matter for describing the world.
Dvaita, on the other hand, rejects the notion of equating Atman with Paramatman as they are different entities.
Dvaita holds that upon Mukti, one enjoys the same quantity of bliss as sat-cit-ānanda but one can never be equal to Brahman.
In recent years, after European Imperialism,
the distinction between "eastern" and "western" philosophy has been less
significant than in previous times.
In the wake of these changes new religious and philosophical movements have drawn freely upon many of the world's religions to attract new initiates.
Dualism is often cited within these groups, along with ideas of oneness, wholeness and theories of multiple intelligences.
Dualism is presented as the Law of Two
opposites, competing forces that rely on each other:
Order and Chaos. These two are further separated, falling into either constructive or destructive versions
of Order and Chaos. Moral, Justice, Religion and Philosophies that are based upon dualistic oversimplification
may incur in cycles of Recursive Thought that are uncapable to solve and face problems.
Such a behaviour leads to the illusion that what is visible of the moon is the entire, rather faulty illusion
that does not consider the work of the Dark Side and of its Shadows.
Dark Forces produce Attachement rather than Freedom, and without a 360° vision, Liberation is not possible.
A Jedi is Peace, Harmony and Equilibrium. He knows the enemy within.
One is The Force. Two parts mean division, and Faith is lost because ignorance takes its place.
Gods widest poit of view 360° cannot be
compared to Lucifers 180° projection of the world,
where opposition and options are arguments of the Dark Force, and shadows made to hide and
disguise its ambassadors. No constant change of configuration may help the system that has lost
the integral point of view. Sides, besides, can be used to oppose men to men, people to people,
nations to nations, worlds to worlds, to divide et impera, to use and abuse.
Dark Jedi work on Dualism. Coagulate and are ready to fight at any time on one side or the other.
No side, no war. The understanding of "Vita", The Force, requires the capacity to penetrate
the Multiverse whilest sensing the integrality of vital vibrations from every point of view
at the same time, space and motion. Jedi Yoga is a possible path to unification.
Connect to The Source, be the Force.
May the Source be within.
Compiled by Jedi Simon Foundation, Jedi
Wiki and Friends.
Jediway Multiversal Language Research Department.
Learn, Practice, Be. May the Force be with you. Things can only get better.