I had a chance to copy some parts of the manuscript, and apologize if the text is not complete.
NATURE’S FINER FORCES, AND THEIR INFLUENCE
UPON HUMAN LIFE AND DESTINY.
THE AUTHOR IS RA M A P RA S AD, M . A . , F .T . S . 1907 … this is an incomplete sample of what we were able to save of the manuscript.
THE TATTVAS. T H E T attvas are the ﬁve modiﬁcations of the Great Breath. Acting upon Prakriti this Great Breath throws it into ﬁve states, having distinctive vibratory motions, and performing diff erent functions. The ﬁrst outcome of the evolutionary state of Barabrah man is the Akasha Tattva. After this come in order the Vayu, the Tejas, the Apas and the Prithivi. They are variously known as Mahabhﬁtas . The word Akasha is generally translated into English by the word ef/ zer . Unfortunately, however, to modern Eng lish science sound is not known to be the distinguish ing quality of ether. Some few might also have the idea that the modern medium of light is the same as Akasha. ’ This, I believe, is a mistake. The lumini ferous ether is the subtle T ejas Tattva, and not the Akasha. A ll the ﬁve subtle T attvas might no doubt be called ethers, but to use the term ether for Akasha, without any distinguishing epithet, is misleading. \Ve might call Akasha the sonoriferous ether, the Vayu the tangiferous ether, Apas the gustiferous ether, and Prithivi the Odoriferous ether. Just as there exists in the universe the luminiferous ether, an element of reﬁned matter without which it has been found that the phenomena of light ﬁnd no adequate explanation, so do there exist the four remaining ethers, elements of reﬁned matter, without which it will be found that the phenomena Of sound, touch, taste and smell ﬁnd no adequate explanation. The luminiferous ether is supposed by modern science to be matter in a most reﬁned state. It is the vibrations of this element that are said to constitute light. The vibrations are said to take place at right angles to the direction of the wave. Nearly the same is the description of the Tejas Tattva given in the book. It makes this Tattva move in an upward dirce tion, and the centre of the direction is, of course, the direction of the wave. Besides, it says that one whole vibration of this element makes the ﬁgure of a triangle. Suppose in this ﬁgure A B is the direc tion of the wave ; B C the direction of the vibration. C A is the line along which, seeing that in expansion the symmetrical arrangements of the atoms of a body are not changed, the vibrating atom must t e turn to its symmetrical position in the line A B. The Tejas Tattva of the ancients is then exa ctly the T HE TATTVAS . Luminiferous ether of the moderns, so far as the nature of the vibration is concerned . There is no concep tion, however, Of the four remaining ethers, at all events in a direct manner, in modern science. The vibrations of Akasha, the sonoriferous ether, consti tute sound ; and it is quite necessary to recogniz e the distinctive character of this form Of motion. The experiment of the bell in a vacuum goes to prove that the vibrations of the atmosphere propagate sound. Any other media, however, such as the earth and the metals, are known to transmit sound in various degrees. There must, therefore, be some one thing in all these media which gives birth to sound the vibration which constitutes sound. That some thing is the Indian Akasha. ‘ But Akasha is all- pervading, just as is the luminiferous ether. Why, then, is not sound transmitted to our ear s when a vacuum is produced in the bell- jar? The real fact is that we must maize a a’zﬁ renee between the vibrations of the elements which constitute sound and light, etc. , and the vibrations Of the media w hich transmit these impressions to our senses. It is not the vibrations of the ethers— the subtle T attvas— that cause our perceptions, but the ethereal vibrations The reader might be put in mind of the phenomena of the telephone, and still better those of the photophone. It is clear that the rays which transmit sound in the latter are not the visual rays of the sun. They are surely audible rays. The former are the vibrations Of the lmm'niﬁ’rous ether. \Vhat are the latter ? The vibrations, ofcourse, ofthe souori/Z’rous ether, the constituent of the Indian Prana, which is called Akasha.
Transferred to different media, which are so many modiﬁcations of gross matter— the Sthﬁla Maha bhﬁtas . The luminiferous ether is present just as much in a darkened room as in the space without. The minutest space within the dimensions of the surrounding w alls themselves is not void of it. For all this the luminosity of the exterior is not present in the interior. Why? The reason is that our ordinary vision does not see the vibrations of the luminiferous ether. It only sees the vibrations of the media which the ether pervades. The capability of being set into ethereal vibrations varies with diff erent media. In the space without the darkened room the ether brings the atoms of the atmosphere into the necessary state of visual vibration, and one wide expanse of light is presented to our view. The same is the case with every other object that we see. The ether which per vades the object brings the atoms of that object into the necessary state of visual vibration. The strength of the ethereal vibrations which the presence of the sun imparts to the ether pervading our planet is not sufﬁcient to evoke the same state in the dead matter of the darkening walls. The internal ether, divided from the external one by this dead mass, is itself cut off from such vibrations. The darkness of the room is thus the consequence, notwithstanding the presence therein of the luminiferous ether. An electric spark in the vacuum of a bell- jar must needs be transmitted to our eyes, because the glass of the jar which stands in contact with the internal luminiferous ether has a Vibration, which from thence IS trans e external ether and thence to the eye. Would never be the case if we were to use >r an earthen jar. It is this capability of to the state of visual V ibration which in nilar objects we call framﬁareney. to the sonoriferous ether (Akasha) . Every 53 matter has, to a certain extent, which varying forms, what we may call auditory w to say something about the nature of us . T w o things must be understood in is connection. In the ﬁrst place the ex rnal form of the vibration is something ( e the hole of the ear. It throws matter which is subject to it, to the form of a dotted sheet. 5 are little points, rising above surface so as to produce micro .i the sheet. It is said to move ;tarts (Sankrama) , and to move in all directions (S arvatogama) . That means to say that the impulse falls back upon itself along the line of its which the auditory vibrations throw the atmospheric air is a true clue to the form of the ethereal vibration. And the vibrations of atmospheric air discovered by modern science are similar. I come now to the tangiferous ether (Vayu) . The vibrations of this ether are described as being spheri cal in form, and the motion is said 0 0 0 to be at acute angles to the wave 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 T 1 ak Such 15 the re resentati on O 0 0 W p0 0 8 66 62 9 0 0 0 0 of these Vibrations on the plane of O the paper. 0 9 08 88 0 0 The remarks about the transmis sion Of sound in the case of Akasha apply here, too, mutatz's mutana ’ z ’ s . The gustiferous ether (Apas Tattva) is said to re semble in shape the half moon. It is, moreover, said to move downward. This direction is opposite to that of the luminiferous ether. This force, there fore, causes contraction. Here is the representation of the Apas vibrations on the plane of paper.
The process of contraction w ill be considered when I come to the qualities of the T attvas . The odoriferous ether (Prithiv’ i)is said to be quad rangular in shape. Thus
I ZIEII ZIEJ I ZID I ZI ET EI I ZI EIEI EI E ]
This is said to move in the middle. It neither moves at right angles, nor at acute angles, nor up wards, nor downwards, but it moves along the line of the wave. The line and the quadrangle are in the same plane. These are the forms, and the modes of motion, of the ﬁve ethers. Of the ﬁve sensations Of men, each of these ethers gives birth to one, thus : 1 . Akasha, sonoriferous ether, sound. 2 . Vayu, tangiferous ether, touch . 3. Tejas, luminiferous ether, colour. 4. Apas, gustiferous ether, taste. 5 . Prithivi, odoriferous ether, smell. In the process Of evolution these coexisting ethers, while retaining their general relative forms and pri mary qualities, contract the qualities Of the other Tattvas. This is known as the process of Panchi karana or division into ﬁve . If we take, as our book does, H, P, R, V and L to be the algebraical symbols for respectively, the ethers after Panchikarana assume the following forms :
r (5) L "i i One molecule of each ether, consisting of eight atoms, has four of the original principal ethers, and one each of the remaining four. The following table will Show the ﬁve qualities of each of the T attvas after Panchikarana. SOUND. TOUCH. TASTE. COLOUR. SMELL. Ordinary. P. Very light. Rather cool. Acid. Cool Slightly hot. Sweet
It might be remarked here that the subtle Tattvas exist now in the universe on four planes. The higher of these planes diff ers from the lower in having a greater number of vibrations per second. The four planes are : I. Physiological 2 . Mental 3. Psychic 4 Pranic.
T H E Akasha is the most important of all the T attvas. It must, as a matter of course, precede and follow every Change Of state on every plane of life. Without this there can be no manifestation or cessa tion of forms. [t is out o f f f luz ‘ s/ za t/ zat every form comes , aua ’ zt 2's A A [eds/1a t/ zat everyf orm lz’ves. The Akasha is full of forms in their potential state. It intervenes between every two of the ﬁve T attvas, and between every two of the ﬁve principles. The evolution of the T attvas is always part of the evolution of a certain deﬁnite form. Thus the mani festation of the primary T attvas is with the deﬁnite aim of giving what we may call a body, a prakritic form, to the Ishvara. In the bosom of the Inﬁnite pervades the whole universe and has a certain centre which serves to keep the whole expanse together, and as one whole separate from other universes (Brah mandas) . It has been mentioned, and further on will be more clearly explained, that every Tattva has apositive and a negative phase. It is also evident on the analogy of the sun that places more distant from the centre are always negative to those which are nearer. We might say that they are cooler than these, as it will be seen further on that heat is not peculiar to the sun only, but that all the higher centres have a greater amount of heat than even the sun itself. Well, then, in this Brahmic sphere of Vayu, except for some space near the Parabrahmic Akasha, every atom of the Vayu is reacted upon by an opposite force. The more distant and therefore the cooler one reacts upon the nearer and therefore the hotter. The equal and opposite vibrations of the same force cancel each other, and both together pass into the aka shic state. Thus, while some of this space remains ﬁlled up by the Brahmic Vayu on account of the constant outﬂow of this Tattva from the Parabrahmic Akasha, the remainder is rapidly turned into Akasha. This Aka sha is the mother of the Brahmic Agni Tattva. The Agni Tattva working similarly gives birth through another Akasha to the Apas, and this simi larly to the Prithiv’ i . This Brahmic Prithivi thus contains the qualities of all the preceding T attvas besides a ﬁfth one Of its own.
RELATION OF TA TTV A S A ND PRINCIPLES
The ﬁrst stage Of the universe, the ocean of psychic matter, has now come into existence in its entirety. This matter is, of course, very, very ﬁne, and there is absolutely no grossness in it as compared with the matter of the ﬁfth plane. In this ocean shines the intelligence of Ishvara, and this ocean, with every thing that might be manifest in it, is the self- conscious universe. In this psychic ocean, as before, the more distant atoms are negative to the nearer ones. Hence, except a certain space which remains ﬁlled with the psychic Prithivi on account Of the constant supply of this element from above, the rest begins to Change into an Akasha. This second Akasha is full of what are called Manus in their potential state. The Manus are so many groups Of certain mental forms, the ideas of the various genera and species of life to appear further on. We have to do with one of these. Impelled by the evolutionary current of the Great Breath, Mann cornes out of this Akasha, in the same way as Brahma did out of the Parabrahmic Akasha. First and uppermost in the mental sphere is the vayu, and then in regular order the Tejas, the Apas, and the Prithivi. This mental matter follows the same laws, and similarly begins to pass into the third aka shic state, which is full of innumerable suns. They come out in the same w ay , and begin to work on a similar plan, which will be better understood here than higher up. Everybody can here test for himself that the more distant portions of the solar system are cooler than the nearer ones. Every little atom of Prana is com paratively cooler than the next one towards the sun from itself. Hence equal and opposite Vibrations cancel each other. Leaving, therefore, a certain space near the sun as always ﬁlled up with the Tattvas of Prana, which are there being constantly supplied from the sun, the rest of the Prana passes into the Aka shic state. It might be noted down here that the whole of this Prana is made up of innumerable little points. Of these points I shall in future speak as T rutis, and might say here that it is these Trutis which appear on the terrestrial plane as atoms (Anu or Paramanu) . They might be spoken of as solar atoms. These solar atoms are of various classes according to the prevalence of one or more of the constituent T attvas. Every point of Prana is a perfect picture of the whole ocean. Every other point is represented in every point. Every atom has, therefore, for its con stituents, all the four Tattvas, in varying proportions according to its position in respect of others . The different Classes of these solar atoms appear on the terrestrial plane as the various elements of chemistry. The spectrum of every terrestrial element reveals the colour or colours of the prevalent Tattva or Tattvas of a solar atom of that substance. The greater the heat to which any substance is subjected the nearer does the element approach its solar state. Heat destroys for the time being the terrestrial coat ings of the solar atoms. …
A Loka which is nearer to the sun than our planet cannot have the same conditions of life. Hence, while the sun draws the earth towards himself, those laws of life which have given it a con stitution , by which for ages it must roll on, keep it in the sphere they have assigned to it. Two forces thus come into existence. Drawn by one the earth would go towards the sun…. passes into the aka shic state, and from thence into the Tejas state. It is not necessary that the whole of the vapour should at once pass into the next state. The change is gradual. As the cold is gradually passing into the vapour, the Tejas modiﬁcation is gradually appearing out of, and through the interven tion of, the Akasha, into which it had passed during latency. This is being indicated on the thermometer. When the whole has passed into the igneous state, and the thermometer has indicated the second Akasha comes into existence. Out of this second Akasha comes the liquid state at the same tempera ture, the whole heat having again passed into the aka shic state, and therefore is no longer indicated by the thermometer. When cold is applied to this liquid, heat again begins to come out, and when it reaches this heat having come out of and through the Akasha into which it had passed, the whole liquid has passed into the igneous state. Here it again begins to pass into the aka shic state. The thermometer begins to fall down, and out of this Akasha begins to come the Prithivi state of water— ice. Thus we see that the heat which is given out by the inﬂuence of cold passes into the aka shic state, which becomes the substratum of a higher phase, and the heat which is absorbed passes into another aka shic state, which becomes the substratum of a lower phase. It is in this way that the terrestrial gaseous sphere changes into its present state. The experiment de
RELATION OF TA TT V A S A ND PRINCIP
scribed above points out many important tr the relation of these T attvas to each other. First of all it explains that very impbrtan of the Science of Breath which says that ceeding tattvic state has the qualities of al going tattvic states. Thus we see that as t] state of water is being acted upon by cold , heat of steam is being cancelled and passin aka shic state. This cannot but be the equal and opposite Vibrations of the same fo cancel each other, and the result is the Aké of this comes the Tejas state of matter. T state in which the latent heat Of stean patent. It will be Observed this state has nence. The Tejas form of water, as inde other substance, cannot exist for any lengt because the major part of terrestrial matte lower and therefore more negative states of Prithivi, and whenever for any cause any passes into the Tejas state, the surroundi begin at once to react upon it with such str once to force it into the next aka shic sta' things which now live in the normal st Apas or the Prithivi ﬁnd it quite against their existence to remain, except under 6 ﬂ uence , in the Tejas (igneous) state. Th of gaseous water before passing into the
2 8 NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
doubt has. Cohesive resistance is only wanted, and that is the quality of the Prithivi Tattva. Now when this atom of liquid water passes into the icy state, what do we see? All the states which have preceded must again show themselves. Cold will cancel the latent heat of the liquid state, and the aka shic state will come out. Out of this aka shic state is sure to come the gaseous state. This gaseous (Vayava)state is evidenced by the gyrations and other motions which are set up in the body of the liquid by the mere application of the cold . The motion, how ever, is not of very long duration, and as they are ceasing (passing into the a ka shic state)the Tejas state is coming out. This, too, however, is not of long duration, and as this is passing into the aka shic state, the ice is coming into existence. It will be easy to see that all the four states of terres trial matter exist in our sphere. The gaseous (V ayava) is there in what we now call the atmosphere ; the igneous (Tejas) is the normal temperature of earth life ; the liquid (Apas) is the ocean ; the solid (Par thiva) is the term ﬁ rma . None of these states, how ever, exists quite isolated from the other. Each - is constantly invading the domain of the other, and thus it is diﬂ i cult to ﬁnd any portion of space ﬁlled up only with matter in one state. The two adjacent T attvas are found intermixed with each other to a greater extent than those that are removed from each other by an intermediate state. Thus Prithivi will be found mixed up to a greater extent with water than with Agni and vayu, Apas with Agni than with vayu, and Vayu with Agni more than with any other. It would thus appear from the above, according to the science Of T attvas, that the ﬂame and other luminous bodies on earth are not in the terrestrial Tejas (igneous)state. They are in or near the solar state of matter….
T H E CENTRES OF PRANA ; THE NADIS; THE TA TTV IC CENTRES OF LIFE ; THE ORDINARY CHANGE OF BREATH. PRANA, as already expressed, is that state of tattvic matter which surrounds the sun, and in which move the earth and other planets. It is the next state above terrestrial matter. The terrestrial sphere is separated from the solar Prana by an Akasha. This Akasha is the immediate mother of the terrestrial Vayu whose native colour is blue. It is on this account that the sky looks blue. Although at this point in the heavens, the Prana changes into the Akasha, which gives birth to the terrestrial Vayu, the rays of the sun which fall on the sphere from without are not stopped on their inward journey. They are refracted, but move onwards into the terrestrial sphere all the same. Through these rays the ocean of Prana, which surrounds our sphere, exerts upon it an organiz ing inﬂuence. The terrestrial Prana—the earth- life which appears in the Shape of all the living organisms of our planet - is, as a whole, nothing more than a modiﬁcation of the solar Prana.
As the earth moves round her own axis and round the sun , twofold centres are developed in the terres trial Prana. During the diurnal rotation every place, as it is subjected to the direct inﬂuence of the sun, sends forth the positive life- current f ro/n t/ ze east to t/ ze west. During the night the same place sends forth the negative current. In the annual course the positive current travels from t/ ze nort/ i to ﬁle soul/ z during the six months of summer— the day Of the Devas, and the negative during the remaining six months— the night of the Devas. The north and east are thus sacred to the positive current ; the Opposite quarters to the negative current. The sun is the lord of the positive current, the moon that of the negative, because the negative solar Prana comes during the night to the earth from the moon. The terrestrial Prana is thus an ethereal being with double centres of work. The ﬁrst is the northern, the second the southern. T he tw o halves Of these centres are the eastern and western centres . During the six months of summer the current of life runs from the north to the south, and during the months Of winter the negative current goes the other way. With every month, with every day, with every Nimesha, this current completes a minor course, and while the current continues in its course the diurnal rotation gives it an eastern or a western direction. The northern current runs during the day of man from east to west, during the night from west to east. The directions of the other current are respec tively opposite to the above. SO practically there are only two directions— the eastern and western. The diﬂ erence of the northern and southern currents is not practically felt in terrestrial life. These two cur rents produce in the terrestrial Prana two distinguish able modiﬁcations of the composing ethers. The rays of either of these ethereal modiﬁcations, proceeding from their different centres, run into each other— the one giving life, strengt h, form, and various qualities to the other. Along the rays emerging from the northern centre, run the currents Of the positive Prana ; along those emerging from the southern, the currents of the negative Prana. The eastern and western channels . of these currents are respectively called Pingala and Ida, two of the celebrated Nadis of the Tantrists. It will be better to discuss the other bear ings of Prana when we have localiz ed it in the human body. The inﬂuence of this terrestrial Prana develops two centres of action in the gross matter which is to form a human body. Part of the matter gathers round the northern, and part round the southern centre. The northern centre develops into the brain ; the southern into the heart. The general shape of the terrestrial Prana is something like an ellipse. In this the north ern focus is the brain ; the southern the heart. The column along which the positive matter gathers runs between these foci . The line in the middle is the place where the eastern …… ( MISSING PAGES ) ….. the two centres, is the ﬁrst cause of organiz ed life. If the succeeding moments are in their tattvic effect friendly to the ﬁrst cause, the organism gains strength and develops ; if not, the impulse is rendered fruitless. The general eﬂ ect of these succeeding moments keeps up general life ; but the impulse Of any one moment tends to pass oﬂ ' as the others come in . A system Of forward and backward motion is thus established. One moment of Prana proceeding from the centre of action goes to the farthest ends of the gross vessels vascular and neural— of the organism. The succeed ing moment gives it, however, the backward impulse. A few moments are taken in the completion of the forward impulse, and the determination of the back ward one. This period diﬂ ' ers in different organisms. As the Prana runs forward, the lungs inspire ; as it recedes, the process of expiration sets in. The Prana moves in the Pingala when it inoves from the northern centre towards the east, and from the southern towards the west ; it moves in Ida when it moves from the northern centre towards the west, and from the southern centre towards the east. This means that in the former case the Prana moves from the brain, towards the right, through the heart, to the left and back to the brain ; and from the heart to the left through the brain to the right back to the heart. In the latter the case is the reverse. To use other terms, in the former case the Prana moves from the nervous system to the right through the system of blood - vessels, to the left, and back again to the ner vous system ; or, from the system Of blood- vessels, to the left, through the nervous system, to the right, and back again to the system of blood- vessels. These two currents coincide. In the latter the case is the reverse. The left part of the body containing both the nerves and the blood- vessels may be called Ida, the right, Pingala. The right and left bronchi form as well the parts respectively of Pingala and Ida, as any other parts Of the right and left divisions of the body. But what is S ushumna? One of the names of S ushumna is Sandhi, the place where the tw o— Ida and Pingala— join. It is really that place from which the Prana may move either way— right or left— or, under certain conditions, both ways. It is that place w hich the Prana must pass when it changes from the right to the left and from the left to the right. It is, therefore, both the spinal canal and the cardiac canal. The spinal canal extends from the Brahmarandhra, the northern centre of Prana through the whole verte bral column (Brahmadanda) . The cardiac canal ex tends from the southern centre midway between the tw o lobes of the heart. As the Prana moves from the spinal canal to the right hand towards the heart, the right lung works ; the breath coming in and going out at the right nostril. When it reaches the southern canal, one cannot feel the breath from either nostril . A s , however, it goes out of the cardiac canal to the left, the breath begins to come from the left nostril, and ﬂows through that until the Prana again reaches the spinal canal . There, again, one ceases to feel the breath from either nostril. The effect of these two positions of Prana is identical upon the ﬂow of breath, and, therefore, both the northern and southern canals are designated by Sushumna . If we may speak in this way, let us imagine that a plane passes midway between the spinal and cardiac canals. This plane will pass through the hollow of the Sushumna . But let it be understood that there is no such plane in reality. It will perhaps be more correct to say that as the rays of the positive Ida and Pingala spread both ways as nerves, and those of the negative similarly as blood- vessels, the rays of the Sushumna spread all over the body midway between the nerves and blood vessels— the positive and negative Nadis. The follow ing is the description of Sushumnain the Science of Breath “ When the breath goes in and out, one moment by the left and the other by the right nostril, that too is Sushumna . When Prana is in that Nadi, the ﬁres of death burn ; this is called V ishuna. When it moves one moment in the right, and the other in the left, let it be called the unequal state (V ishunabhava) ; when it moves through both at once, the wise have called it V ishuna. Again [ It is Sushumna ] at the time of the passing of the Prana from the Ida into the Pingala, or vice versa ; and also of the change of one Tattva into another.” Then the Sushunmahas two other functions. It is called Vedo- Veda in one of its manifestations, and Sandhyasandhi in the other. As, however, the right and left directions of the cardiac Prana coincide with the left and right of the spinal current, there are some writers who dispense with the double Sushumna . According to them the spinal canal alone is the Sushumna . The U ttaragz ‘ta ‘ and the S / i atac/ zakra i VirZZ /v zna are works which favour this View. This method Of explanation takes away a good deal of diﬂ ﬁculty . The highest recommendation of this View is its comparative simplicity. The right side current from the heart, and the left side current from the spine, may both, without any difﬁculty, be taken as the left side spinal currents, as may the remaining two currents be deemed spinal currents of the right side. One more consideration is in favour of this view. The nervous system represents the sun, the system of blood- vessels the moon. Hence the real force of life dwells in the nerves. The positive and negative— the solar and lunar— phases of life matter are only dif ferent phases of Prana, the solar matter. The more distant, and, for that reason, the cooler matter is nega tive to that w hich is nearer and hotter. It IS solar life which manifests itself in the various phases of the moon. To pass out of technicalities, it is nervous force which manifests itself in various forms, in the system of blood- vessels. The blood- vessels are only the receptacles of nervous force. Hence, in the ner vous system, the real life of the gross body are the true Ida, Pingala, and Sushumna . These are, in such a case, the spinal column, and the right and left sym pathetics, with all their ramiﬁcations throughout the body. The development of the two centres is thus the ﬁrst stage in the development of the foetus. The matter which gathers up under the inﬂuence of the northern centre is the spinal column ; the matter which gathers up round the southern centre is the heart. The diurnal rotation divides these columns or canals into the right and left divisions. Then the correlative inﬂuence of these two centres upon each other develops an upper and lower division in each of these centres. This happens somewhat in the same way, and on the same principle, as a Leyden jar is charged with positive electricity by a negative rod. Each of these centres is thus divided into four parts : I , the right side positive ; 2 , the left side positive ; 3, the right side negative ; 4, the left side negative. In the heart these four divisions are called the right and left auricles and ventricles. The Tantras style these four divisions the four petals of the cardiac lotus, and indicate them bv various letters. The posi tive petals of the heart form the centre from which proceed the positive blood- vessels— the arteries ; the negative petals are the starting points of the negative blood- vessels— the veins. This negative Prana is pregnant with ten forces : I , Prana ; 2 , Apana ; 3, Samar i a ; 4, Vyana ; 5 , Udana ; 6, Krikila ; 7, Naga ; 8 , Devadatta ; 9, Dhananjaya ; I o, Ku rma. These ten forces are called Vayus. The word Vayu is derived from the root va, to move, and means nothing more than a motive power . The Tantrists must not be understood to deﬁne it as a gas. Hence I shall speak in future of these vayus as the forces or motive powers of Prana. These ten manifestations of Prana are by some reduced to the ﬁrst ﬁve alone, holding that the remaining ones are only modiﬁcations of the former, which are the all- important of the functions of Prana. This, however, is only a question of divi sion. From the left side positive petal the Prana gathers up into a Nadi, which ramiﬁes within the chest into the lungs, and again gathers up into a Nadi which opens into the right side negative petal. This entire course forms something like a circle (Chakra) . This Nadi is called in modern science the pulmonary artery and vein. Two lungs come into existence by the alternate workings Of the positive and negative Pranas of the eastern and western powers. Similarly from the right side positive petal branch several Nadis, which go both upwards and downwards in tw o directions— the former under the inﬂuence Of the northern, the latter under the inﬂuence of the southern powers. Both these Nadis open after a cir cular march throughout the upper and lower portions of the body into the left side negative petal. Between the left side positive and the right side negative petal is one Chakra (disc) . This Chakra comprises the pulmonary artery, the lungs and the pulmonary vein . The chest gives room to this Chakra, which is positive with respect to the lower portions of the body, where run the ramiﬁcations of the lower Chakra, which latter joins the right side positive and the left side negative petals. In the above- mentioned Chakra (in the cavity of the chest) is the seat of Prana, the ﬁrst and most important Of the ten manifestations. Inspiration and expiration being a true index to the changes of Prana, the pulmonary manifestations thereof have the same name. With the changes of Prana we have a corres ponding change in the other functions of life. The lower negative Chakra contains the principal seats of some of the other manifestations of life. This A pana is located in the long intestine ; Samana in the navel ; and so on. Udana is located in the throat ; Vyana all over the body. Udana causes belching ; Ku rma causes the eyes to shut and open ; Krikila in the stomach causes hunger. In short, proceeding from the four petals of the heart we have an entire network of these blood- vessels. There are two sets of these blood vessels lying side by side in every part of the body, con nected by innumerable little channels— the capillaries. We read in the P ros/ i nopanisliaa’ “ From the heart [ ramify the] Nadis. Of these there are 10 1 principal ones [Pradhana Nadis]. Each of these branches lnt0. I OO ; each of these again into Thus, there are branch Nadis and still smaller ones, or what are called Tw ig- Nadis. The terminology is imitated from a tree. The root is in the heart. From this proceeds various stems. These ramify into branch- vessels and these again into twig vessels ; all these Nadis put together are 727210201.
…… ten Nadis go upwards, ten downwards, and two and two crookedly. ” The number is the result of their own peculiar reckoning. It matters little which division we adopt if we understand the truth of the case. Along these Nadis run the various forces which form and keep up the physiological man. These channels gather up into various parts of the body as centres of the various manifestations of Prana. It is like water falling from a hill, gathering into various lakes, each lake letting out several streams. These centres are : I , hand power centres ; 2 , foot power centres ; 3, speech power centres ; 4, excretive power centres ; 5 , generative power centres ; 6, digestive and absorbing power centres ; 7, breathing power centres ; 8 , the ﬁve sense power centres. Those of these Nadis which proceed to the outlets of the body perform the most important functions of the body, and they are hence said to be the ten prin cipal ones in the whole system. These are I . Gandhari goes to the left eye. 2 . H astijihvagoes to the right eye. 3. Pfi shagoes to the right ear. 4. Yashasvini goes to the left ear. 5 . A lambusha, or A lammukha (as it is variously spelt in one goes to the month. This evidently is the alimentary canal . 6. Kuhﬁ goes to the generative organs. 7. Shankhini goes to the excretive organs. 8 . Ida leads to the left nostril of the nose.
9. Pingala leads to the right nostril. It appears that these names are given to these local Nadis, for the same reason that the pulmonary manifestation of Prana is known by the same name. 10 . Sushumna has already been explained in its various phases and manifestations. There are tw o more outlets of the body, which re ceive their natural development in the female —the breasts. It is quite possible that the Nadi Damini, of which no speciﬁc mention has been made, might go to one of these. Whatever it be, the principle of the division and classiﬁcation is clear, and this is some thing actually gained.,,,,
1 . While the minds rests in the eastern portion [or petal], which is white in colour, then it is inclined towards patience, generosity, and reverence.
2 . “ While the mind rests in the south- eastern portion, which is red in colour, then it is inclined towards sleep, torpor, and evil inclination. 3. “ While the mind rests in the southern portion, which is black in colour, then it is inclined towards anger, melancholy, and bad tendencies. 4. “ While the mind rests in the south- western portion, which is blue in colour, then it is inclined towards jealousy and cunning. 5 . “ While the mind rests in the western portion, which is brown in colour, then it is inclined towards smiles, amorousness, and jocoseness. 6. “ While the mind rests in the north- western portion, which is indigo in colour, then it Is Inclined towards anxiety, restless dissatisfaction, and apathy. 7. “ While the mind rests in the northern portion, which is yellow in colour, then it is inclined towards love and enjoyment and adornment. 8 . “ While the mind rests in the north- eastern portion, which is white in colour, then it is inclined towards pity, forgiveness, reﬂection and religion. 9L “ While the mind rests in the Sandhis [ conjunc tions] ofthese portions, then arise disease and confusion in body and home, and the mind inclines towards the three humours.
“ While the mind rests in the middle portion, which is Violet in colour, then consciousness goes
beyond the qualities [ the three qualities of Mﬁyé], and it inclines towards intelligence. When any one of these centres is in action, the min is conscious of the same kind of feeling, and inclines towards it. Mesmeric passes serve only to excite these centres. These centres are located in the head as well as in the chest, and also in the abdominal region and the loins, etc. It is these centres, together with the heart itself, that bear the name of Padmas, or Kamalas (lotuses) . Some of these are' large, some small, very small. A tantrik lotus is of the type of a vegetable organism, a root with various branches. These centres are the reservoirs of various powers, and hence the roots of the Padmas ; the Nadis ramifying from these centres are their various branches. The nervous plexuses of the modern anatomists coincide with these centres. From what has been said above it will appear that the centres are constituted by blood- vessels. But the only difference between the nerves and the blood- vessels is the difference between the vehicles of the positive and negative Pranas. The nerves are the positive, the blood- vessels the negative system of the body. Wherever there are nerves there are corresponding blood- vessels. Both of them are indiscriminately called Nadis. One set has for its centre the lotus of the heart, the other the thousand petalled lotus of the brain. The system of blood vessels is an exact picture of the nervous system, is, A”
in fact, only its shadow. Like the heart the brain has its upper and lower divisions— the cerebrum and the cerebellum—and, as well, its right and left divisions. The nerves going to both sides of the body and coming back from thence, together with those going to the upper and lower portions, correspond to the four petals of the heart. This system too, then, has as many cen tres of energy as the former. Both these centres co’in cide in position. They are, in fact, the same— the ner vous plexuses and ganglia of modern anatomy. Thus, in my opinion, the tantrik Padmas are not only the centres of nervous power of the positive northern Prana, but as well and necessarily of the negative Prana. The translation of the Science of Breath which is now presented to the reader has two sections eh ume rating the various actions which are to be done during the ﬂow of the positive or the negative breath. They show nothing more than what can in some cases be very easily veriﬁed, that certain actions are better done by positive energy, and others by negative energy. The taking in of chemicals and their changes are actions, as well as any others. Some of the Chemicals are better assimilated by the negative} others by the positive r Prana. Some of our sensations produce more lasting effects upon the negative, others upon the positive Prana. Prana has now arranged the gross matter in the womb into the nervous and blood - vessel systems. The F or example, milk and other f atty substances. T Such food as is digested in the stomach.
Prana, as has been seen, is made of the ﬁve T attvas, and the Nadis serve only as lines for tattvic currents to run on . The centres of power noticed above are centres of tattvic power. The tattvic centres in the right part of the body are solar, those in the left, lunar. Both these solar and lunar centres are of ﬁve descriptions. Their kind is determined by what are called the nervous ganglia. The semi- lunar ganglia are the reservoirs of the Apas Tattva. Similarly we have the reservoirs of the other forces. From these central reservoirs the tattvic currents run over the same lines, and do the various actions allotted to them in physiological economy. Everything in the human body which has more or less of cohesive resistance is made up of the Prithivi Tattva. But in this the various T attvas work im printing diff ering qualities upon the various parts of the body. The vayu Tattva, among others, performs the func tions of giving birth to, and nourishing the skin ; the positive gives us the positive, and the negative the negative skin. Each of these has ﬁve layers :
1, Pure Vayu ; 2 , Vayu- Agni ; 3, Vayu- Prithivi ; 4, Vayu—Apas ; 5 , Vayu- Akasha. These ﬁve 0 0C lasses of cells have the follow mg ﬁgures 03 0 0 0 0 0 A 0 0 O O 0 0 1 . Pure Vayu. T hl S IS the complete 0 0 000008 0 sphere of the vayu. o o o o 2 . Vayu- Agni. The triangle is super posed over the“ sphere, and the cells have something like the following shape.
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6) 3. Vayu- Prithivi . This is the result of the super! position of the quadrangular Prit hivi over the spherical Vayu . G 4. vayu- Apas. Something like an ellipse, the semi- moon placed above the sphere. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 . Vayu- Akasha. The sphere ﬂattened by the super position of the circle and dotted. A microscopic examination of ! the skin will show that its cells have this appearance. Similarly are bone, muscle and fat given birth to by the Prithivi, the Agni and the Apas. Akasha appears in various positions. Wherever there is any room for anyW e there is Akasha. The blood is a mix ture of nutritive substances kept in the ﬂ uidic state by the Apas Tattva of Prana. It is thus seen that while terrestrial Prana is an exact manifestation of the solar Prana, the human manifestation is an exact expression of either. The m icrocosm is an exact picture of the macroc'osm. The four petals of the lotus of the heart branch really into twelve Nadis (k, kh, g, gh, n° , ch, chh, j , jh, Ii, t, th) . Similarly the brain has twelve pairs of nerves. These
50 NATURE’S FINER FORCES. centres are semi- lunar, those of the Tejas, the Vayu, the Prithivi, and the Akasha respectively triangular, spherical, quadrang u lar, and circular. Those of the composite T attvas have composite ﬁg u res. Each tattvic centre has ganglia of all the T attvas surrounding it. In this system of Nadis moves the Prana. As the sun passes into the sign of Aries in the macrocosm, the Prana passes into the corresponding Nadis (nerves) of the brain. Thence it descends every day towards the spine. With the rise of the sun it descends into the ﬁrst spinal Chakra towards the right. It thus passes into the Pingala. Along the nerves of the right side it moves, passing at the same time little by little into the blood- vessels. Up to the noon of every day the strength of this Prana is greater in the nervous than in the venous Chakras. At noon they become of equal strength. In the evening (with sunset) , the Prana with its entire strength has passed into the blood- vessels. Thence it gathers up into the heart, the negative southern centre. It then spreads into the left side blood- vessels, passing gradually into the nerves. At midnight the strength is equaliz ed ; in the morning (Pra tahsandhya)the Prana is just in the spine ; from thence it begins to travel along the second Chakra (disc, circle) . This is the course of the solar current of The moon gives birth to other and minor currents. The moon moves some twelve times more than the sun . Therefore while the sun passes over one Chakra during sixty Gha risf—day and night) , the moon passes over twelve odd Chakras.
Therefore we have twelve 0c changes of Prana during twenty- four hours. Suppose the moon too begins in Aries, she begins like the sun in the ﬁrst Chakra, and takes 5 8m. 45 . in reaching from the spine t o the heart, and as many minutes from the heart back to the spine. Both these Pranas move in their respective courses along the tattvic centres above spoken of . Either of them is present at any one time all over the same class of tattvic centres, in any one part of the body. It manifests itself ﬁrst in the Vayu centres, then in the Tejas, thirdly in the Prithivi, and fourthly in the Apas centres. Akasha comes after each, and immediately precedes the Sushumna . As the lunar current passes from the spine towards the‘ right, the breath comes out of the right nostril, and as long as the current of Prana remains in the back part of the body, the T attvas change from the Vayu to the Apas. As the current passes into the front part of the right half, the T attvas change back from the Apas to the Vayu. As the Prana passes into the heart, the breath is not felt at all p assing out at the nose. As it proceeds from the heart to the left, the breath begins to ﬂ ow out at the left nostril, and as long as it is in the front part of the body, the T attvas change from the Vayu to the Apas. They Change back again as before, until the Prana reaches the spine, when we have the Akasha of Sushumna . Such is the even change of Prana which we have in the state of perfect health. The impulse that has been given to the localiz ed Prana by the sun and moon forces which give active power and
existence to Prana its prototype, makes it work in the same way for ever and ever. The working of the human free will and certain other forces Change the nature of the local Prana, and individualiz e it in such a way as to render it distinguishable from the universal terrestrial or ecliptical Pranas. With the varying nature of Prana, the order of the tattvic an d the positive and negative currents may in various degrees be affected. Disease is the result of this variation. In fact, the ﬂow of breath is the truest indication of the tattvic changes of the body. The balance of the positive and negative tattvic curre nts results in health, while the disturbance of their harmony produces disease. The science of the ﬂow of breath is there fore of the highest importance to every man who values his own health, and that of his fellow creatures. It is at the same time the most important, the most useful and comprehensive, the easiest, and the most interesting branch of Yoga. It teaches us how to guide our will so as to effect desired changes in the order and nature of our positive and negative tattvic currents. This it does in the follow ing way. All physical action is Prana in a certain state. Without Prana there is no action, and every action is the result of the diﬂ ering harmonies of tattvic currents. Thus, motion in any one part of the body is the result of the activity of the Vayu centres in that part of the body. In the same way, whenever there is activity in the Prithivi centres, we have a feeling of enjoyment and satisfaction . Similar are the causes of other sensations.
We ﬁnd that while lving down we change sides when the breath passes out at that nostril. We there fore conclude that if we lie on either side the breath will ﬂ ow out at the opposite nostril. Whenever, there fore, we see that it is desirable to Change the negative conditions of our body to the positive, we resort to this expedient. An investigation into the physiological ffects of Prana on the gross coil, and the counter effects of gross action upon Prana, will next be dealt with. The Pranamaya Kosha (coil of life) changes into three general states during day and night— the waking, the dreaming, the sleeping (J agrat, Svapna, Su shupti) . These three changes produce correspond ing changes in the Manomaya Kosha (the mental coil) , and thence arises the consciousness of the changes of life. The mind, in fact, lies behind the Prana. The strings (tattvic lines) of the former instrument are ﬁner than those of the latter ; that is, in the former we have a greater number of Vibrations than in the latter during the same space of time. Their tensions stand to each other, however, in such a relation that with the Vibrations of the one, the other of itself begins to vibrate. The changes give to the mind, therefore, a similar appearance, and consciousness of the phenomenon is caused. Of this, however, I will not treat at present. My present object is to describe all those changes of Prﬁna— natural or induced— which make up the sum- total of our worldly experience, and which, during ages of evolution, have called the mind itself out of the state of latency. These changes, as I have said, divide themselves into three general states— the waking, the dreaming, and the sleeping. Waking is the positive, sleeping the negative state of Prana; dreaming is the conjunction of the two (Su shumna Sandhi) . As has been stated, the solar current travels in a positive direction during the day, while we are awake. As night approaches the positive current has made itself lord of the body. It gains so much strength that the sensuous and active organs lose sympathy with the external world. Perception and action cease, and the waking state passes off . The excess of the positive current slackens, as it were, the tattvic chords of the different centres of work, and they accordingly cease to answer to the ordinary ethe real changes of external nature. If at this point the strength of the positive current passed beyond ordi nary limits, death would ensue, and Prana would cease to have any connection with the gross body, the ordi nary vehicle of the external tattvic changes. But just at the moment the Prana passes out of the heart, the negative current sets in, and it begins to counteract the eff ects of the former. As the Prana reaches the spine, the eff ects of the positive current have entirely passed off , and we awake. If at this moment the strength of the negative current passes the ordinary limit by some cause or other, death would ensue, but just at this moment the positive current sets in with midnight, and begins to counteract the eff ect of the former. A balance of the positive and negative cur rents thus keeps body and soul together. With excessin the strength of either current, makes appearance. We thus see that there are two kinc death— the positive or spinal, the negative or can In the former the four higher pW or the body through the head, the Brahmarandhra, al the spine ; in the latter they pass out of the nu through the lungs and the trachea. Besides t there are generally speaking about six tattvic d All these deaths mark out diff erent paths higher principles. Of these, however, more here Let us at this stage investigate more thoroughl changes of Prana. There are certain manifestations of Préna w hic ﬁnd equally at work in all the three states. manifestations have been, as I said before, cla by some writers under ﬁve heads. They have di centres of work in different parts of the body, whence they assert their dominion over every p the physical coil. Thus :
1 . Prana is that manifestation of the life- coil which draws atmospheric air from without into the system. 2 . Apana is that manifestation which throws, from inside, out of the system, things which are not wanted there. 3. Samana is that manifestation which draws in and carries the juice of food to every part of the body. 4. Vyana is that manifestation which causes every part of the body to keep its shape, and to consequently resist those putrefying forces which assert themselves in a dead body. 5 . Udana is that manifestation which inclines the currents of life back to the centres— the heart and the brain. It is, therefore, this manifestation which causes death— local or general. If Prana recedes from any part of the body (for some reason or other) that part loses its powers of action. This is local death. It is in this way that we become deaf, dumb, blind , etc. It is in this way that our digestive powers suffer, and so on . General death is similar in its Operations. With the excess of the strength of either of the two currents, the Prana re mains in the Sushumna , and does not pass out. The acquired power of work of the body then begins to pass off . The farther from the centres— the heart and the brain— the sooner the parts die. It is thus that the pulse ﬁrst ceases to be felt in the extremities, and then nearer and nearer the heart , until we ﬁnd it nowhere. A gain, it is this upward impulse which, under……. The former is calmer and smoother than the latter. The tattvic changes give to each of these ﬁve new phases of colour. Thus : POSITIVE— REDDISH WHITE. NEGATIVE—PURE WHITE. 1 . The vayu Tattva, green. I. 2 . The Agni Tattva, red. 2 . The Agni Tattva, red. 3. The Prithivi Tattva, yellow. 3. The Prithivi Tattva, yellow. 4. The Apas Tattva, white. 4. The Apas Tattva, white. 5 . The Akasha Tattva, dark. 5 . The Akasha Tattva, dark. The V ziyu Tattva, green.
It is evident that there is a difference between the positive and negative tattvic phases of colour. There are thus ten general phases of colour. The positive current— the reddish white— is hotter than the negative— the pure white. It may, therefore, be generally said that the positive current is hot, the negative cool. Each of these, then undergoes ﬁve tattvic changes of temperature. The Agni is the hottest, the yellow next to it ; the Vayu becomes cool, and the Apas is the coolest. The Akasha has a state which neither cools nor heats. This state is, therefore, the most dangerous of all, and, if prolonged, causes death, disease, and debility. It is evident that if the cooling Tattvas do not in due time set in after the heating T attvas, to counteract the accumulated effect of the latter, the functions of life will be impaired. The just colour and the just temperature at which these functions work in their vigour will be disturbed, and disease, death, and debility are nothing more than this disturbance in various degrees. Similar is the
case if the heating Tattvas do not set in in due time after the cooling ones. It will be easy to understand that these changes of tattvic colours and temperatures are not abrupt. The one passes off easily and smoothly into the other, and the tattvic mixtures produce innumerable colours —as many, in fact, as the solar Prana has been shown to possess. Each of these colours tends to keep the body healthy if it remains in action just as long as it ought, but no sooner does the duration change than disease results. There is a possibility, therefore, of as many diseases as there are colours in the sun. If any one colour is prolonged, there must be some one or more which has given the period of its dura tion to it; similarly if one colour takes less time than it ought, there must be some one or more which takes its place. This suggests two methods of the treat ment of diseases. But before speaking of these, it will be necessary to investigate as fully as possible the causes which lengthen and shorten the ideal periods
60 NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
the lungs are thrown into a triangular form of expan sion, atmospheric air runs in, and the process of inspi ration is complete. With every T ruti, a backward impulse is given to the currents of Prana. The lungs are thrown with this returning current into their sta tionarystate, and the excess of air is expelled. This is the process of expiration. The air that is thus thrown out of the lungs bears a triangularform. The water- vapour which this air contains, to some extent furnishes us with a method of testing this truth bv experiment. If we take a smooth, shining looking glass, and, placing it under the nose, steadily breathe upon its cool surface, the water- vapour of the air will be condensed, and it will be seen that this bears a particular ﬁgure. In the case of the pure Agni, the ﬁgure on the looking- glass will be a triangle. Let another person look steadily upon the mirror, because the impression passes off rapidly, and may escape the person who is breathing upon it. With the course of the other Tattvas the lungs are thrown into their respective shapes, and the looking glass gives us the same ﬁgures. Thus in Apas we have the semi- moon, in vayu the sphere, in Prithivi the quadrangle. With the composition of these Tattvas we may have other ﬁgures—oblongs, squares, spheroids, and so on. It may also be mentioned that the luminiferous ether carries the materials drawn from the atmospheric air to the centres of the luminiferous ether, and thence to every part of the body. So also do the other ethers
carry these materials to their respective centres . It is not necessary to trace the workings of the other mani festations one by one . It may, however, be said that although all the ﬁve T attvas work in all the ﬁve manifestations, each of these manifestations is sacred to one of these Tattvas . Thus in Prana the Vayu Tattva prevails, in Samar i a the Agni, in Apana the Prithivi, in Vyana the Apas, in Udana the Akasha. I may remind the reader that the general colour of Prana is white, and this will Show how the Apas Tattva prevails in Vyana. The darkness of Akasha is the darkness of death, etc. , caused by the manifesta tion of Udana. During life these ten changes are always taking place in Prana at the intervals of about twenty— six minutes each. In waking, in sleep, or in dream, these changes never cease. It is only in the tw o Sushumna s or the Akasha that these changes become for a moment potential, because it is from these that these tattvic manifestations Show themselves on the plane of the body. If this moment is prolonged, the forces of Prana remain potential, and in death the Prﬁna is thus in the potential state. When those causes which tended to lengthen the period of Sushumna , and thus cause death, are removed, this individual Prana passes out of the potential into the actual, positive, or nega tive state as the case may be. It will energiz e matter, and will develop it into the shape towards which its accumulated potentialities tend. Something may now be said about the work of
NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
TH E SENSUOUS A ND ACTIVE ORGANS.
tn ! All work, it may generally be said, is tattvic motion. This work is capable of being carried on during the waking state, and not in Sleep or dream. These ten organs have ten general colours, thus : SENSUOUS ORGANS. ACTIVE ORGANS. 1. Eye, Agni, red. 1 . Hand, Vayu, blue. 2 . Ear, Aka sha, dark. 2 . Foot, Prithivi, yellow. 3. Nose, Prithivi, yellow. 3. Tongue (speech) , Apas, white. 4 . Tongue (taste) , Apas, white. 4. Anus, Akasha, dark. 5 . Skin, Vayu, blue. 5 . P udendum, Agni, red. Although these are the generally prevalent T attvas in these var i ous centres, all the other T attvas exist in a subordinate position. Thus in the eye we have a reddish yellow, reddish white, reddish dark, reddish blue, and similarly in the other organs. This division into ﬁve of each of these colours is only general ; in reality there is an almost innumerable variation of colours in each of these. With every act of every one of these ten organs, the organ specially, and the whole body generally, assumes a diff erent colour, the colour of that particular tattvic motion which constitutes that act. All these changes of Prana constitute the sum total of our worldly experience. Furnished with this appa ratus, Prana begins its human pilgrimage, in company with a mind, which is evolved only to the extent of connecting the “ I am ” of the Ahankara or V ijiiana, the fourth principle from below, with these manifesta tions of Prana. Time imprints upon it all the in
AP RANA. 63
numerable colours of the universe. The visual, the tangible, the gustatory, the auditory, and the olfactory appearances in all their variety gather into Prana just as our daily experience teaches us that one current of electricity carries many messages at one and the same time. In the same way do the appearances of the active organs, and the ﬁve remaining general func tions of the body, gather up in this Prana to manifest themselves in due time. A few illustrations will render all this clear. First to speak of our S EX RELATIONS. The generative Agni Tattva of the male is positive that of the female negative. The former is hotter, harsher, and more restless than the latter ; the latter is coolef , smoother, and calmer than the former. Here I shall only speak of the colouration of Prana by the action or non- action of this power. The posi tive Agni tends to run into the negative, and vice verso ” . If it is not allowed to do so, the repeated impulses of this Tattva turn upon themselves, the centre gains greater strength, and the whole Préna is every day coloured deeper and deeper red. The centres of the Agni Tattva all over the body become stronger in their action, while all the others contract a general tinge of the red. The eyes and the stomach become stronger. If, however, man indulges his sexual in stincts , the male Prana gets coloured by the female Agni, and vice versa . This tends to weaken all the centres of this Tattva, and gives to the whole Prana
64 NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
a feminine colour. The stomach also becomes cool. the eyes grow weak, and Virile manly power departs. If more than one individual female Agni takes posses sion of the male Prana, and vice versa , the general antagonistic Tattva becomes deeper and stronger. The whole Prana is vitiated to a greater extent, greater debility is the result, spermatorrhoea, impotence, and such other antagonistic colours take possession of the Prana. Besides, the separate individualities of the male or female Agnis, which have taken possession of any one Prana, will tend to repel each other. Suppose now that a man is given to WALKING. The Prithivi Tattva of the feet gains strength, the yellow colour pervades the whole Prana. The centres of the Prithivi all over the body begin to work more briskly ; Agni receives a mild and wholesome addition to its power, the whole system tends towards healthy equilibrium— neither too hot, nor yet too cold— and a general feeling of satisfaction accompanied with vigour, playfulness and a * relish of enjoyment is the result. Let me take one more illustration from the opera tions of vAx (SPEECH) , and then I shall have done with the organs of action. The power (Shakti)of speech (V ak, Sarasvati) is one of the most important goddesses of the H indﬁ pan theon . The chief ingredient of Prana which goe ” ……. tions of the external world, as will be easily under stood, which excite the centres of the Apas Tattva ; the current passes along the vocal Chords, they are made tense, and sound is produced. But the excite ment of these centres comes also from the soul through the mind. The use of this sound in the course of evolution as the vehicle of thought is the marriage of Brahma (the V ijﬁanamaya Kosha, the soul) with Sarasvati, the power of speech as located in man. The Apas Tattva of the vocal apparatus, although the chief motive power in the production of sound, is modiﬁed according to circumstances by the compo sition of the other T attvas in various degrees. As far as human ken reaches, about forty - nine of these variations have been recorded under the name of Svara. First, there are seven general notes. These may be positive and negative (Tivra and Komala) , and then each of these may have three subdivisions. These notes are then composed into eight Ragas, and each Raga has several Raginis. The simple Raginis may be then compounded into others, and each Ragini may have a good many arrangements of notes. The variations of sound thus become almost innumerable. All these variations are caused by the varying tensions of the vocal chords, the Vina of Sarasvati, and the tensions vary by the varying strength of the Apas current, caused by the superposition of the other T attvas . Each variation of sound has , then, a colour of its own, which affects the whole Prana in its own way.
The tattvic effect of all these sounds is noted books of music ; and various diseases may be and good or bad tendencies imprinted on thr by the power of sound. Sarasvati is an all— p goddess, and controls our Pranas for good or the case may be. If a song or note is coloured Agni Tattva, the sound colours the Prana rel larly the Vayu, the Apas, the Akasha, and the I blue, white, dark and yellow. The red— colours causes heat ; it may cause anger, sleep, digesti redness of colour. The Akasha- coloured song fear, forgetfulness, etc. Songs may similarly our Prana the colour of love, enmity, adl morality, or immorality, as the case may be. Let us turn another key. If the words w bear the colour of the Agni Tattva— anger, 10 — our Prana is coloured red, and this redues: upon ourselves. It may burn up our substai may look lean and lank, we may have ten th
68 NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
hearing of pleasant sounds, to the smelling of dainty smells, etc. , the colours of these Tattvas will be over much strengthened, and gain a mastery over our Prana. If we are fond of seeing beautiful women, hearing the music of their voices, heaven help us, for the least and the most general effect will be that our Pranas will receive the feminine colouration. These illustrations are sufficient to explain how the tattvic colours of external nature gather up in Prana. It may be necessary to say that no new colours enter into the formation of Prana. All the colours of the universe are already present there, just as they are in the sun, the prototype of Prana. The colouration which I have spoken of is only the strengthening of the particular colour to an extent which throws the others in shade. It is this disturb ance of balance which in the ﬁrst place causes the variety of human Prana, and in the second those innumerable diseases which ﬂesh is heir to. From this it is evident that every action of man gives his Prana a separate colour, and the colour affects the gross body in its turn . But when, at what time, does the particular tattvic colour aﬂ ect the body? Ordinarily under similar tattvic conditions of the external universe. This means that if the Agni Tattva has gained strength in any Prana at any one particular division of time, the strength will show itself when that particular division of time recurs again. Before attempting a solution of this problem, it is necessary to understand the following truths :
The sun is the chief life- giver of every organism in the system. The moment that a new organism has come into existence, the sun changes his capacity in relation to that organism. He now becomes the sustainer in that organism of positive life. Along with this the moon begins to inﬂuence the organism in her ow n way. She becomes the sustainer of negative life. The planets each of them establish their ow n currents in the organism. F or the sake of simplicity I have as yet only spoken of the sun and the moon, the lords respectively of the positive and negative currents of the right and left halves of the body, of the brain and the heart, of the nerves and the blood vessels. These are the two chief sources of life, but the planets, it must be remembered, exercise a modify ing inﬂuence over these currents . So the real tattvic condition of any moment is determined by all the seven planets, as also by the sun and the moon. Each planet, after determining the general tattvic condition of the moment, proceeds to introduce changes in the organism which is the birth of the moment. These changes correspond with the manifestation of that colour of Prana which took its rise at that time. Thus, suppose the red colour has entered Prana when the moon is in the second degree of the Sign of Libra. If there is no disturbing inﬂuence Of any other luminary, the red colour will manifest itself whenever the moon is in the same position ; if there be a disturbing inﬂ u ence the red colour will manifest itself when that inﬂuence is removed. It m ayshow itself in a month,
70 N ATURE’S FINER FORCES. or it may be postponed for ages. It is very diﬂ icult to determine the time when an act will have its eff ect. It depends a good deal upon the strength of the im pression. The strength of the impression may be divided into ten degrees, although some writers have gone further. I . Momentary This degree of strength has its cﬂ ect there and then. 2 . 30° strength. In this case the cﬂ ect will show itself when each planet is in the same sign as at the time of the impression. 3. 15 ° strength. (Hora) 4. 10 ° strength. (Dreshkana.) 5 . 2 00 ' strength. (Navansha .) 6. 15 0' strength. (Dvadashansha.) 7. 60 ' or 1 ° strength. (Trinshansha.) 8 . I " strength. (Kala) 9. I strength. (V ipala .) 10 . I strength. (Truti.) Suppose in any Prana, on account of any action, the A gni Tattva obtains the strongest possible prevalence consistent with the preservation of the body, the Tattva will begin to have its eﬂ ect then and there, until it has exhausted itself to a certain extent. It will then become latent and Show itself when at any time the same planets sit in the same mansions. Examples will illustrate better. Suppose the follow ing position of the planets at any moment denotes the tattvic condition when any given colour has entered the Prana, say Tuesday, the 3rd of April,
Si g n deg m s Sun I I 2 2 5 2 5 5 Mars 5 2 8 I 40 Mercury 10 2 5 42 2 7 Saturn 3 9 33 30 Venus . I 1 2 6 35 I 7 Moon 8 16 5 9 J upiter 7 I5 4 1 5 3 It is at this time, we suppose, that the act abow referred to is committed. The present effect will pa off with the tw o hours’ lunar current which may l passing at that time. It will then become latent, an remain so till the time when these planets are in tl same position again. These positions might, as 1 1: been seen, be nine and more in number. As soon as the exact time passes off when a color has obtained predominance in Prana, the effect there( on the gross body becomes latent. It shows itse again in a general way w hen the stars sit in the sair mansions . Some of the strength is worn off at th time, and the force again becomes latent to Show itse in greater minuteness when at any time the hal mansions coincide, and so on with the remainin parts noticed above. There may be any number
72 NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
upon Prana by any act, however insigniﬁcant, really takes ages to pass off, when the stars coincide in posi tion to a degree with that when the act was com mitted. A knowledge of astronomy is thus highly essential in occult Vedic religion. The following observations may, however, render the above a little more intelligible. The Pranamaya Kosha, as often remarked, is an exact picture of the terrestrial Prana. The periodical currents of the ﬁner forces of nature which are in the earth operate according to the same laws in the prin ciple of life ; just as is the Zodiac, so is the Pranamaya Kosha divided into mansions, etc. The northern and southern inclinations of the axis give us a heart and a brain. Each of these has branching of f from it twelve ramiﬁcations, which are the twelve signs of the Zodiac. The daily rotation then gives us the thirty- one Chakras spoken of previously. These Chakras have all the divisions of the signs of the Zodiac. The division into semi- mansions has already been spoken of. There is the positive semi- mansion, and the negative semi- mansion . Then we have the one- third, the one- ninth, the one- twelfth, and so on to a degree, or the divisions or subdivisions thereof. Each of these Chakras, both diurnal and annual, is in fact a circle of 360° like the great circles of the heavenly spheres. Through these Chakras is established a course of seven descriptions of life currents. (1)Solar; (2 )Lunar; (3) Mars, Agni ; (4)Mercury, …… DEATH. A s already said, the two ordinary forms of death are the positive through the brain, and the negative through the heart. This is death through the Sn shumna. In this the T attvas are all potential. Death may also take place through the other Nadis. In this case there must always be the prevalence of one or more of the Tattvas. Towards different regions does the Prana go after death, according to the paths through which it passes out of the body. Thus 1 . The negative Sushumnatakes it to the moon. 2 . The positive Sushumnatakes it to the sun. 3. The A gni of the other Nadis takes it to the hill known as Raurava (ﬁre) . 4. The A pas of the other Nadis takes it to the hill known as A mbarisha, and so on ; the Akasha, the vayu and the Prithivi take it to A ndhatamisra, Kala sii tra , and Mahaka la respectively (see Yoga S zitra, Pada 1 1 1 , Aphorism 2 6, commentary) . The negative path is that generally taken by the Prana. This path takes it to the moon (the Chandra loka)because the moon is the lord of the negative sys tem, the negative currents, and the negative S ushumna — the heart, which therefore is a continuation of the lunar Prana. The Prana which has the general negative colour can only move along this path, and it is trans ferred naturallyto the reservoirs, the centres of the nega tive Prana. Those men in whom the two hours’ lunar current is passing more or less regularly take this path.
rana which has lost the intensity of its terres
, energiz es lunar matter according to its ngth, and thus establishes there for itself a >assive life. The mind is here in a state of The tattvic impressions of gathered- up forces ire it in the same way as they do in our earthly The only diff erence is that in that state there i e superposed force of indigestion to render 'ic impressions so strong and sudden as to be That dreamy state is characteriz ed by extreme Whatever our mind has in it of the inter xperiences of this world ; whatever we have or heard, or seen, or enjoyed ; the sense of on and enjoyment, the bliss and playfulness Apas and the Prithivi T attvas, the languid love of the Agni, the agreeable forgetfulness tka sha , all make their appearance one after r in perfect calm. The painful impressions appearance, because the painful arises when ression forces itself upon the mind which is armony with its surroundings. It is in this t the mind lives in the Chandraloka, as will
76 NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
with the Prana. Both of them have now lost the tinge of a former life. Of Prana it might be said that it has a new appearance; of the mind, that it has a new consciousness. When they are both in this state, both very weak, the accumulated tattvic effects of Prana begin to show themselves with the return of the same positions of the stars. These draw us back from the lunar to the terrestrial Prana. The mind at this stage has no individuality worth taking account of, so that it is drawn by Prana to wherever its aﬂ ini ties carry it. Thus it joins with those solar rays which wear a similar colour, all those mighty poten tialities which Show themselves in the future man being as yet quite latent. With the rays of the sun it passes according to the ordinary laws of vegetation into grain bearing similar colours. Each grain has a separate individuality, which accounts for its separate existence, and there may be in many a grain human potentialities, giving it an individuality of its own. Similarly do human individualities come back from the ﬁve states which are known as hells. These are the states of posthumous existence ﬁxed for those men who enjoy to an excessive and violent degree the various impressions of each of the T attvas . As the tattvic intensity, which disturbs the balance and there fore causes pain, wears off in time, the individual Prana passes off to the lunar sphere, and thence undergoes the same states which have been above described. Along the positive path through the Brahmarandhra pass those Pranas which transcend the general eff ects
of time, and therefore do not return to earth under ordinary laws. It is time that brings back the Pranas from the moon, and the least strong tattvic condition comes into play with the return of identical astral positions ; but the sun being the keeper of time him self, and the strongest factor in the determination of his tattvic condition, it would be impossible for solar time to affect solar Prana. Therefore, only those Pranas travel towards the sun in which there is almost no preponderance of any tattvic colour. This is the state of the Prana of Yogis alone. By the constant practice of the eight branches of Yoga, the Prana is puriﬁed of any very strongly personifying colours, and since it is evident that on such a Prana time can have no effect under ordinary circumstances, they pass off to the sun. These Pranas have no distinct per sonifying colours ; all of them that go to the sun have almost the same general tinge. But their minds are different. They can be distinguished from each other, according to the particular branch of science which they have cultivated, or according to the par ticular and varying methods of mental improvement which they have follow ed 0 11 earth . In this state the mind is not dependent, as in the moon, upon the im pressions of Prana. Constant practice of Yoga has rendered it an independent worker, depending only upon the soul, and moulding the Prana to its ow n shapes, and giving it its own colours. This is a kind of Moksha. Although the sun is the most potent lord of life,
78 NATURE’S FINER FORCES.
and the tattvic condition of Prana has now no effect upon the Prana which has passed to the sun, it is still affected by the planetary currents, and there are times when this effect is very strong, so that the earthly conditions in which minds have previously existed are again present with them . A desire to do the same sort of good they did in the world in their previous life takes possession of them, and impelled by this desire they sometimes come back to the earth. Shan kara cha rya has noticed in his commentary on the Brahmasﬁtra that A pantartamah, one of the Vedic Rishis, thus appeared on earth as Krishna Dvaipa yana, about the end of the Dvapara and the beginning of the Kali Yuga. As it is desirable that as much should be known about Prana as possible, I give below some quotations on the subject from the They will give additional interest to the subject, and present it in a more comprehensive and far more attractive garb. “ He who knows the birth, the coming in, the places of manifestation, the rule, and the microcosmic appear ance of Prana becomes immortal by that knowledge.” P ractical knowledge of the laws of life and a sub ordination of the lower nature to the behests of such laws, must naturally end in the passing of the soul out of the shadowy side of life into the original light of the sun. This means immortality, that is, passing beyond the power of terrestrial death . But to go on with what the Upanishad has to say of the things to be known about Prana.
THE BIRTH OF PRANA. The Prana is born from the Atma ; it arlses in the Atma, like the shadow in the body. The human body, or other organism, coming as it does between the sun and the portion of space on the other side, throws a shade in the ocean of Prana. Similarly is the Prana seen as a shade in the macro cosmic soul (Ishvara) because the macrocosmic mind (Mann)intervenes. Brieﬂy the Prana is the shade of Mann caused by the light of the Logos, the macro cosmic centre. The suns ow e their birth in this shade to the impression upon it of the macrocosmic mental ideas. These suns - the centres of Prana, become in their turn the positive starting- point of further develop ment. The Manus, throwing their shade by the inter vention of the suns, give birth in those shades to planets, etc. The suns throwing their shades by the intervention of planets, give birth to moons. Then these different centres begin to act upon the planets, and the sun descends on them in the shape of various organisms, man included. …. and southern centres of Prana, the centres from which the southern and northern phases of life- matter take their start. The eastern and western halves are there also. At every moment of time in every T ruti— there are millions of T rutis— perfect organisms— in space. This may require some explanation. The units of time and space are the same— a T ruti. Take any one T ruti of time. It is well known that every moment of time the tattvic rays of Prana go in every direction from every point to every other point. Hence it is clear enough that every T ruti of space is a perfect picture of the whole apparatus of Prana, with all its centres and sides, and positive and negative relations. To express a good deal in a few words, every Trati of space is a perfect organism. In the ocean of Prana which surrounds the sun there are innumerable such T rutis. While essentially the same, it is easy to understand that the following items will make a difference in the general colour, appearance, and forms of these T rutis. 1 . Distance from the solar centre. 2 . Inclination from the solar axis. I take the earth for illustration. That z one of solar life, taking into consideration both the distance and the inclination in which the earth moves, gives birth to earth- life. This z one of earth- life is known as the ecliptic. Now every Trati of space in this ecliptic is a separate individual organism. As the earth moves in her annual course, i .e. , as the T ruti of time changes,……. it may pass to other spheres. When the terrestrial balance is again restored, when this posthumous life has been lived, the energiz ation is again transferred to the earth. Such is the macrocosmic appearance of Prana, with the pictures of all the organisms of the earth. And now for TH E COMING IN. How does this Pranamaya Kosha — this T r u ti of the macrocosm—come into this body? “ By actions at whose root lies the mind,” says brieﬂy the Upanishad. It has been explained how every action changes the nature of the Pranamaya Kosha, and it will be ex plained in the essay on the “ Cosmic Picture Gallery ” how these changes are represented in the cosmical counterpart of our life- principle. It is evident that by these actions is produced the change in the . general relative nature of the Prana and the Ray i which has been spoken of in the foregoing part of this essay. It is hardly necessary to say that the mind— the human free will—lies at the root of those actions which disturb the tattvic balance of the life- principle. Hence “ the Prana comes into this body by actions, at whose root lies the mind. ” TH E PLACES OF MANIFESTATION. As the paramount power appoints its servants, telling them, ‘ Rule such and such Villages,’ so does the Prana. It puts its diff erent manifestations in dif ferent places. In the Payu [anus] and Upasthais the Apana [which discharges faeces and urine]. In the eye and the ear are the manifestations known as sight and hearing [Chakshuh and Shrotra]. The Prana remains itself, going out of mouth and nose. Between [ the places of Prana and Apana, about the navel] lives the Samar i a. It is this that carries equally [all over the body] the food [and drink] that is thrown in the ﬁre. Hence are those seven lights. [By means of Prana, light of knowledge is thrown over colour, form, sound, etc.] “ In the heart verily is this Atma [ the Pranamaya Kosha], and in it, verily, the other coils. Here there are a hundred and one Nadis, each Nadi containing a hundred coils. In each of these branch Nadis there are other Nadis. In these moves the Vyana. “ By one [ the Sushumna ] going upward, the Udana carries to good worlds by means of goodness, and to evil ones by means of evil ; by both to the world of a wn . “ The sun is, verily, the macrocosmic Prana; he rises, and thereby helps the eyesight. The power that is in the earth keeps up the power of Apana; the Akasha [ the ethereal matter] that is between heaven and earth, helps the Samana. The ethereal life- matter [ independent of its being between the earth and heaven] which ﬁlls macrocosmic space, is Vyana. “ The Tejas— the luminiferous ether—is Udana ; hence he whose natural ﬁre is cooled down [ap proaches death].
Then the man goes towards second birth ; the organs and senses go into the mind ; the mind of the man comes to the Prana [ its manifestations now ceas ing]. The Prana is combined with the Tejas, going with the soul, it carries it to the spheres which are in View. ” The diff erent manifestations of Prana in the body; and the places where they manifest themselves have been dwelt upon. But there appear in this extract certain other statements of interest. It is said that this Atma, this Pranamaya Kosha with the other coils, verily, is located in the heart. The heart, as has been seen, represents the negative side of life—the Ray i. When the positive Prana, which is properly located in the brain, impresses itself upon the Rayi — the heart and the Nadis that ﬂow from it— the forms of life with the actions of man come into exist ence. It is therefore, properly speaking, the reﬂection in the heart that works in the world, this reﬂection being the proper lord of the sensuous and active organs of life. If this being in the heart learns not how to live here, the sensuous and active organs both lose their life and the connection with the world ceases. The being of the brain which has no immediate con nection with the world, except through the heart, now remains in its unrestrained purity; in short, the soul goes to the S ﬁry loka (the sun) . THE EX TERNAL PRANA. The next point of interest is the description of the functions of the external Prana, which lie at the root of, and help the working of the individualiz ed Prana. It is said that the sun is the Prana. This is evident enough, and has been mentioned many a time before this. The most important function of life, inspiration and expiration, the function which, according to the Science of Breath, is the one law of the existence of the universe on all the planes of life, is brought into existence and kept in activity by the sun himself. It is the solar breath that constitutes his existence, and this reﬂected in man gives birth to human breath. The sun then appears in another phase. He rises, and as he does so, he supports the eyes in their natural action. Similarly the power that is in the earth sustains the Apana manifestation of Prana. It is the power which draws everything towards the earth, says the commen tator. In modern language it is gravity. Something more might here be said about the Udana manifestation of Prana. As everybody knows, there is a phase of microcosmic Prana which carries everything, names, forms, sounds, sights, and all other sensations, from one place to another. This is other wise known as the universal Agni, or the Tejas of the text. The localiz ed manifestation of this phase of Prana is called Udana, or that which carries the life…. iz ed manifestations were to work in unison, and with temperance, doing their own duty, but not usurping the time and place of others, there would be but little evil in the world. But each of these manifestations asserts its sole power over the poor bewildered human soul. Each of these claims the whole life of man to be its ow n proper domain. “ The Akasha, the vayu, the A gni, the Prithivi, the A pas, speech, Sight and hearing— all of them say clearly that they are the sole monarchs of the human body. The principal Prana- he whose manifestations all these are— tells them “ Be not forgetful ; it is I who sustain the human body, dividing myself into ﬁve. If the ﬁve manifestations of Prana with all their minor subdivisions revolt against him, if each begins to assert its own lordship, and ceases to work for the general beneﬁt of the lord paramount, which is the real life, misery makes its sad appearance to harass the poor human soul. “ But the manifestations of Prana, blinded by ignor ance,” would not “ put forth ” at the admonitions of their lord. “ He leaves the body, and as he leaves, all the other minor Pranas leave it, too ; they stay there as he stays. ” Then are their eyes opened. “ As the bees follow the queen bee in every way, so do the Pranas— namely, speech, the mind, the eye, the ear— follow him with devotion, and thus praise him . “ He is the Agni, the cause of heat ; he is the sun [ the giver of light]; he is the cloud, he is the Indra, he is the Vayu, he is the Prithivi, he is the Rayi, and the Deva, the Sat, and the A satﬁ ‘ and he is the iiii mortal . 4 ike the spokes in the nave of a wheel, every thing is sustained in Prana— the hymns of the 161g, the Yaj ur, and the S anta Z ’cl as , the sacriﬁce, the Kshatriyas and the Brahmans, etc. “ Thou art the progenitor; thou movest in the womb ; thou art born in the Shape of the father or the mother ; to thee, O Prana, that dwelleth in the body with thy manifestations, these creatures offer presents. “ Thou art the carrier of offerings to the Devas, thou art the carrier of oblations to the fathers ; thou art the action and the power of the senses and other manifestations of life. “ Thou art, O Prana, the great lord in power, the consumer of all oblations, as the Ekarshi ﬁre [of the A tharvas]; thou art the preserver of all existence ; we are to thee the offerers of food ; thou art our father as the recorder [or the life- giver of the recorder]. “ Make healthy that appearance of thine which is located in the speech, the ear, the eye, and that which is stretched towards the mind ; do not ﬂy away. “ Whatever exists in the three heavens, all of it is in the power of Prana. Protect us like a mother her offspring; give us wealth and intellect. ” With this I conclude my description of Prana, the second principle of the universe, and the human body. The epithets bestowed upon this mighty being in the above extract will be easy of understanding in the light of all that has gone before. It is now time to trace the working of the universal tattvic Law of Breath on the next higher plane of life—the mind (Manomaya Kosha) .
……. The object of the present essay is to run over brieﬂy the various phenomena relating to the third higher body of man— the Manomaya Kosha, the mind— and note how symmetrically and universally the T attvas bring about the formation and work of this principle. KNOWLEDGE In general language it is knowledge that distin guishes the mind from physiological life (Prana) , but it will be seen on a little consideration that different degrees of knowledge might very well be taken as the distinguishing characteristics of the ﬁve states of matter, which in man we call the ﬁve principles. For what is knowledge but a kind of tattvic motion of breath, elevated into self- consciousness by the presence, in a greater or less degree, of the element of Ahankara (egoism)? This is no doubt the View taken of know ledge by the Vedantic philosopher when he speaks of intelligence as being the motive power, the ﬁrst cause of the universe. The word Svara is only a synonym of intelligence, the one manifestation of the One descending into Prakriti. “ I see something,” means, according to our View of knowledge, that my Manomaya Kosha has been put into visual vibration. “ I hear,” means that my Manomaya Kosha is in a state of auditory vibration. “ I feel,” means that my mind is in a state of tangible Vibration. And so 0 11 with the other senses.
T H E MIND.
I love, means that my mind is in a state of an i ration (a form of attraction) . The ﬁrst state— that of the Anandamaya tte of the highest knowledge. There is the e centre, the substratum for the whole inﬁn trabrahman , and the ethereal Vibrations of his e one throughout the whole expanse of in here is but one intelligence, but one know he whole universe, with all its potentialitie tualities , is a part of that knowledge. This ghest state of bliss. There is no consciousr . I f here, for the I has only a relative existenc ere must be a Tlzou or a H e before there can b The Ego takes form when, in the second pl 'istence , more than one minor centre come i stence. It is for this reason that the name tra has been given to this state of matter. hereal impulses of those centres are conﬁned t vn particular domain in space, and they di ch centre. They can, however, affect each st in the same way as the individualiz ed e i pulses of one man aff ect those of others under similar laws to those ruling the rest of the cosmos. The suns move round the V ira ts in the same way as the planets move round the sun. TH E FUNCTIONS OF TH E MIND. The composition of the Mann is similar to that of Prana ; it is composed of a still ﬁner grade of the ﬁve T attvas, and this increased ﬁneness endows the Tattvas with diff erent functions. The ﬁve functions of Prana have been given. The following are the ﬁve functions of Manas, as given by Patanjali and accepted by V ya sa : 1 . Means of knowledge (Pramana) . 2 . False know ledge (Viparyaya) . 3. Complex imagination (Vikalpa) . 4. Sleep (Nidra) . 5 . Memory (Smriti) . All the manifestations of the mind fall under one or other of these ﬁve heads. Thus, Pramana includes a . Perception (Pratyaksha) . b. Inference (Anu mana) . c. Authority(Agama) . V iparyaya includes a . Ignorance (Avidya, Tamas) . b. Egoism (As mita, Moha) . c. Retention (Raga, Mahamoha) . a ’ . Repulsion (Tamisra, Dvesha) . e. Tenacity of life (A bhinivesha, A ndhatamisra) . The remaining three have no deﬁnite subdivisions. I shall now Show that all the modiﬁcations of thought are forms of tattvic motion on the mental plane. 1 . MEANS OF KNOWLEDGE (PRA M ANA ) . The word Pramana (means of knowledge)is derived from two roots, the predicative ma , and the derivative tongue, the skin, the ear and the nose respectively to the Apas, the vay u , the Akasha and the Prithivi vibrations. The pure Agni causes the perception of red, the Tejas- Prithivi of yellow, the Tejas- Apas of white, the Tejas- Vayu of blue, and so on. Other colours are produced in the mind by mixed vibrations in a thousand varying degrees. The Apas gives soft ness, the Vayu roughness, the Agni harshness. We see through the eyes not only colour, but also form . It will be remembered that a particular f orm has been assigned to every tattvic vibration, and all the forms of gross matter answer to corresponding tattvic vibra tions. Thus form can be perceived through every sense. The eyes can see form, the tongue can taste it, the skin can touch it, and so on. This may probably appear to be a novel assertion, but it must be remem bered that virtue is not limited to its outw ard expres sion or act. The ear would hear form, if the more general use of the eye and the skin for this purpose had not almost stiﬂed it into inaction. The one form is differentiated in at least ﬁve modes, and each mode calls the same thing by a different name. This is aptly illustrated by the physiology of the ﬁve sense organs. The pure Apas vibrations cause an astIi ngent taste, the Apas- Prithiv i a sweet, the Apas- Agni hot, the Apas- vayu acid, and so on. Innumerable other var ia tions of taste are caused by intermediate vibrations in various degrees. The case is similar with the vocal and other changes of vibration . It is clear that our perceptive knowledge is nothing more than a veritable tattvic motion of the mental body, caused by the sympathetic communica tions of the Vibrations of Prana, just as a stringed instrument of a certain tension begins to Vibrate spontaneously when vibration is set up in another similar instrument.
b. Inference (A numana) The word A numana has the same roots as the word Pramana . The only difference is in the preﬁx. We have here anu, “ after, ” instead of pra . Inference (A numana)is therefore after- motion . When the mind is capable of sustaining two Vibrations at one and the same time, then, if either of these vibrations is set up and perceived, the second vibration must also manifest itself. Thus, suppose a man pinches me. The com plex vibrations that make up the perception of the action of a man pinching me are produced in my mind. I recogniz e the phenomena. Almost simultaneously with these vibrations another set of vibrations is pro duced in me. I call this pain. Now here are two kinds of tattvic motion, the one coming after the other. If at any other time I feel similar pain, the image of the man pinching will be recalled to my consciousness. This after- motion is “ inference. ” Induction and
96 NATURE’S FINER FORCES. Whenever I think of the phenomenon of sunrise, the concept of that direction presents itself. I therefore say that the sun rises as a rule in that direction. Inference is, therefore, nothing more than a tattvic motion coming after another related one.
c. A ut/ zoritj / (Algama)
The third modiﬁcation of what is called the means of knowledge (Pramana)is authority (Agama) . What is this? I read in my geography, or hear from the lips of my teacher that Britain is surrounded by the ocean. Now what has connected these words in my mind with the picture of Britain, the ocean, and their mutual relations? Certainly it is not perception, and therefore not inference, which must by nature work through sensuous knowledge. What then? There must be some third modiﬁcation. The fact that words possess the power to raise a certain picture in our minds is one of very deep in terest. Every Indian philosopher recogniz es it as a third modiﬁcation of the mind, but it receives no recognition at the hands of modern European philo sophy. There is, however, little doubt that the colour corresponding to this mental modiﬁcation differs from that corresponding to either perception or inference. The colour belonging to the perceptive modiﬁcations of the mind is always single in its nature. A certain phase of the Tejas Vibration must always prevail in the visual modiﬁcation, and similarly the Vibrations so in the past ; in the present it has become native to the mind . 2 . FALSE KNOWLEDGE (V IPA RV A YA ) . This is the second mental modiﬁcation. This word also is derived from a root meaning motion— i or ay, “ to go,” “ to move. ” The preﬁx pari is connected with the root pro, and gives the same idea to the root. Paryaya has the same radical meaning as Pramana. The word V iparyaya therefore means “ a motion removed from the motion which coincides with the object. ” The Vibrations of Pramana coincide in nature with the Vibrations of the object of perception ; not so the vibrations of V iparyaya. Certain acquired condi tions of the mind imprint on the percepts a new colour of their own, and thus distinguish them from the percepts of Pramana. There are ﬁve modiﬁcations of this manifestation.
a . Ignorance This is the general ﬁeld for the manifestation of all the modiﬁcations of V iparyaya (false knowledge) . The word comes from the root via’, “ to know,” the preﬁx a , and the suﬂ i x ya . The original meaning of the root is “ to be,” “ to exist. ” The original meaning of Vidya is, therefore, “ the state of a thing as it is,” or expressed in terms of the mental plane in one word, “ knowledge. As long as in the face of a human being I see a face and nothing else, my mental vibration is said to be Vidya. But as soon as I see a moon, or something else not a face, when it is a face I am looking at, my mental
TH E MIND.
vibration is no longer said to be Vidya, but A vidy Avidya (ignorance)is therefore not a negative concej tion, it is just as positive as Vidya itself. It is a gre mistake to suppose that w ords having the privati‘ preﬁxes always imply abstractions and never realitie This, however, is a digression. The state of Avid‘ is that state in which the mental vibration is disturb< by that of Akasha, and some other T attvas, w hi< thus produce false appearances. The general appea ance of Avidya is Akasha— darkness, and this is w l Tamas is a synonym of this word. This general prevalence of darkness is caused I some defect in individual minds, because, as we ﬁl from daily experience, a given object does not cxci the same set of Vibrations in all minds. What, the is the mental defect? It is to be found in the natu of the stored- up potential energy of the mind . Tl storing up of potential energy is a problem of t deepest importance in philosophy, and one in w hi the doctrine of transmigration of souls ﬁnds its m1 intelligible explanation. This so- called law of vasa may be enunciated as follows. If anything be set in any particular kind of tatt1 motion— internal or external— it acquires the ca; bility , for a second time, of being easily set into t s a m e k in d o f m otion and of conseq uently resisting
Thus, if a man accustoms his body to a particular form of exercise, certain muscles in his body are very easily set in motion. A ny other form of exercise that requires the use of other muscles will be found fatigu ing on account of the resistance set up by muscular habits. Similar is the case with the mind. If I have a deep- rooted conviction, as some have to this day, that the earth is ﬂat and that the sun moves round it, it may require ages to alter my belief. A thousand examples might be cited of such phenomena. It is, however, only necessary in this place to state that the capacity of turning easily to one mental state and off ering resistance to another is what I mean by this stored- up energy. It is called vasana or Sanskara in Sanskrit. The word Vasana comes from the root vas, “ to dwell. It means the dwelling or ﬁxing of some form of vibra tory motion in the mind. It is by Vasana that certain truths become native to the mind, and, not only certain so- called truths, but all the so- called natural tendencies - moral, physical and spiritual— become in this way native to the mind. The only diﬂ ' erence in different V a sanas is in their respective stability. Those va sanas which are imprinted upon the mind as the result of the ordinary evolutionary course of nature never change. The products of independent human actions are of two kinds. If action result in tendencies that check the evolutionary progressive tide of nature, the effect of the action exhausts itself in time by the repellent force of the under- current of evolution. A smita (egoism) is the conviction that real life (Purusha Svara) is one with its various mental and physiological modiﬁcations, that the higher self is one with the lower one, that the sum of our percepts and concepts is the real Ego, and that there is nothing beyond. In the present cycle of evolution and in the previous ones, the mind has chieﬂy been occupied with these percepts and concepts. The real power of life is never seen making any separate appearance, hence the feeling that the Ego must be the same with the mental phenomena. It is plain that Avidya, as deﬁned above, lies at the root of this manifestation.
c. Retention (Ra ga) The misleading feeling of satisfaction above men tioned under Avidya is the cause of this condition. When any object repeatedly produces in our mind this feeling of satisfaction, our mind engenders the habit of falling again and again into the same state of tattvic Vibration. The feeling of satisfaction and the picture of the object which seemed to cause that satisfaction tend to appear together, and this is a hankering after the object, a desire not to let it escape us— that is to say, Raga (pleasure) . We may here investigate more thoroughly the nature of this feeling of satisfaction and its Opposite pleasure and pain . The Sanskrit words for these two mental states are respectively Sukha and Duhkha. Both come from the root than , “ to dig ” ; the preﬁxes
us and a’u/ z make the difference. The former preﬁx conveys the idea of “ ease,” and it derives this idea from the unrestrained easy ﬂow of breath. The radical idea of Sukha is, therefore, unrestrained digging digging where the soil offers but little resistance. Transferred to the mind, that act becomes Sukha, that which makes upon it an eaSy impression. The act must, in the nature of its vibrations, coincide with the then prevailing conditions of the mental vibrations. Before any percepts or concepts had taken root in the mind, there was no desire, no pleasure. The genesis both of desire and what is called pleasure— that is, the sense of satisfaction caused by the impressions pro duced by exter nal objects— begins with certain percepts and concepts, taking root in the mind. This taking root is really only an overclouding of the original set of impressions arising out of evolutionary mental pro gress. When contact with the external object for a moment removes that cloud from the clear horiz on of the mind, the soul is conscious of a feeling of satis
The mind does not easily give place to these vibra tions ; it tries to repel them with all its might. Thence arises a feeling of privation. It is as if something of its nature were being taken away, and an alien pheno menon introduced. This consciousness of privation, or want, is pain, and the repulsive power which these alien Vibrations excite inthe mind is known by the name of Dvesha (desire to repel) . The word Dvesha comes from the root a'vest i , which is a compound of
a ’ u and isli ; is/ z itself appears to be a compound root, i and s. The ﬁnal s is Connected with the root su, “ to breathe,” “ to be in one’s natural state. ” The root i means “ to go,” and the root isli , therefore, means “ to go tow ards one’s natural state. ” Transferred to the mind, the word becomes a synonym of Raga. The root a ’ u in Dvesha performs the same function as
c lub in Duhkha. Hence Dvesha comes to mean a hankering after repulsion. ” Anger, jealousy, hatred, etc. , are all modiﬁcations of this, as love, affection, and friendship are those of Raga. It is easy, by what has been said above, to follow up the genesis of the principle of “ tenacity of life. ” I must now try to assign these actions to their prevailing Tattvas . The general colour of Avidya is, as already said, that of Akasha, darkness. When, however, Avidya is manifested as anger, the Agni Tattva prevails. If this be accompanied by motion of the body Vayu is indicated. Stubbornness shows as Prithivi and tracta bilityas Apas, while the condition of fear and trem bling ﬁnds expression in Akasha.
4. SLEEP (NIDRA) . This also is a phenomenon of the Manomaya Kosha (mind) . Indian philosophers speak of three states in this connection—Waking, Dream, Sleep. a . Waking. This is the ordinary state when the principle of life works in connection with the mind. The mind, then, through the action of the senses, receives impressions of the external objects. The other faculties of the mind are purely mental, and they may work in the waking as in the dreaming state. The only diff erence is that in dreams the mind does not undergo the per ceptive changes. How is this? These changes of state are always passive, and the soul has no choice in being subjected to them. They come and go as a necessary result of the working of Svara in all its ﬁve modiﬁcations. As has been explained in the article on Prana, the different sensuous organs cease to re spond to external tattvic changes when the positive current gains more than ordinary strength in the body. The positive force appears to us in the shape of heat, the negative in the shape of cold . I may, therefore, in future term these forces heat and cold.
The Upanishad says that in dreamless sleep the soul sleeps in the blood- vessels (Nadis) , the peri cardium (Puritat)and the hollow of the heart . H as the system of blood- vessels—the negative centre of Prana, anything to do with dream also? The state of
dream, according to the Indian sage, is an inter one between waking and sleeping, and it is but able to suppose that there must be something system which accounts for both these pher What is that something? It is variously spokc the Pitta, the Agni, and the Sun. It is nee say that these words are meant to denote one same thing. It is the effect produced on the l the solar breath in general, and the Agni T particular. The word Pitta may mislead mar it is, therefore, necessary to state that the w o not always mean “ lull ” There is one Pitts Sanskrit physiology locates specially in the This is called the Sadhaka Pitta. It is nothin nor less than cardiac temperature, and it is w that we have to do in sleep or dream. According to the Indian philosopher, it is diac temperature that causes the three states ing degrees. This, and nothing more, is the 1 of the Vedic text, which says that the soul 5
When the positive reaches its daily extreme the ac tions of the sense organs are no longer synchronous with the modiﬁcation of the external Tattvas. It is a matter of daily experience that the sensuous organs respond to external tattvic vibrations within certain limits. If the limit is exceeded either way, the organs become insensible to these Vibrations. There is, therefore, a certain degree of temperature at which the sensuous organs can ordinarily work, but when this limit is exceeded either way the organs become incapable of receiving any impression from without. During day the positive life current gathers strength in the heart. The ordinary physical mood is naturally altered by this gathering up of the force, and, as a result, the senses sleep. They receive no impression from without. This is sufﬁcient to pro duce the dreaming state. As yet the chords of the gross body (Stli iila Sharira)have alone slackened ; the soul sees the mind no longer affected by external impressions. The mind is, however, habituated to various percepts and concepts, and by the mere force of habit passes into various states. The breath, as it diﬂ erentiates into the ﬁve tattvic states, becomes the cause of the varying impressions coming up. The soul , as already said, plays no part in calling up these Visions. It is by the working of a necessary law of life that the mind undergoes the various changes of the waking and the sleeping states. The soul does nothing in conjuring up the phantasms of a dream, otherwise it would be impossible to explain horrible
within 0111 physical atmosphere. Such dreams are akin in their nature to the ravings of delirium ; the only diff erence lying in strength and violence. When ill, we may in a similar way dream of health and its surroundings. The second kind of dream is caused by ordinary tattvic changes. When the past, the present, and the future tattvic conditions of our surroundings are uni form in their nature, when there is no change, and when no change is in store for us, the stream of dreams is most calm and equable in its easy ﬂow. As the atmospheric and the healthful physiological T attvas glide smoothly one into the other, so do the impressions of our minds in this class of dreams. Ordinarily we cannot even remember these dreams, for in them there is nothing of special excitement to keep them in our memory. The third kind of change is similar to the ﬁrst, the difference lying only in the nature of the eff ects. These we call the effects of disease or health, as the case may be ; here we might group the results under the general names of prosperity or calamity. The process of this sort of mental excitement is, however, the same in both. The currents of life preg nant with all sorts of good and evil, are sufﬁcient in strength, while yet potential and only tending towards the actual, to set the sympathetic chords of the mind in Vibration . The purer the mind, and the freer from dust of the world, the more sensitive is it to the slightest and remotest tendency of Prana towards some change. We consequently become conscious of coming events
T H E MIND. I I I
in dreams. This explains the nature of prophetic dreams. To weigh, however, the force of these dreams, to ﬁnd out exactly what each dream means, is a most difficult, and, under ordinary circumstances, I may say, a quite impossible task. We may make ten thousand mistakes at every step, and we need nothing less than a perfect Yogi for the right understanding of even our ow n dreams, to say nothing of those of others. Let us explain and illustrate the diffi culties which surround 11s in the right understanding of our dreams. A man in the same quarter of the city in which I live, but unknown to me, is about to die. Pregnant with death, the tattvic currents of his body disturb the atmospheric T attvas , and are through their instrumentality spread in various degrees of strength all over the world. They reach me too, and when I am sleeping excite the sympathetic chords of the mind. Now as there is no special room in my mind for that man, my impression will only be general. A human being, fair or ugly, thin or fat, male or female, lamented or not, and having other like qualities, will come into the mind as on his death- bed. But what man? The power of complex imagination, unless kept in check by the most rigorous exercise of Yoga, will have its play, and it is almost certain that a man who has previously been connected in my mind with all these tattvic qualities, will make his appearance in my consciousness. It is evident I shall be on the wrong track. That someone is dead or dying, we may be sure, but who or where it is impossible for ordinary men to discover. And not
only does the manifestation of V ikalpa put us on the wrong track, all the manifestations of the mind do that. The state of Samadhi, which is nothing more than putting one’s self into a state of the most perfect amenability to tattvic surroundings, is therefore im possible unless all the other manifestations are held in perfect check. “ Yoga,” says Patanjali, “ is keeping in check the manifestations of the mind. ” But to resume.
c. Deep S leep
The dreaming state is maintained as long as the cardiac temperature is not strong enough to affect the mental coil. But with increasing positive strength that too must be affected. The Manas and the Prana are made of the same materials and are subject to the same laws. The more subtle, however, these materials are, the stronger must be the forces that produce similar changes. All the coils are tuned together, and changes in the one affect the other. The vibrations per second of the ﬁrst one are, however, greater in number than those of the lower one, and this causes its subtlety. The higher are always aﬂ ' ected through the imme diately lower principles. Thus the external T attvas will affect Prana directly, but the mind can only be affected through the Prana and indirectly. The cardiac f / temperature is only an indication of the degree of heat in Prana. When sufficient is gathered up there, the Prana having acquired sufficient strength, affects the mental coil. …… Every percept takes root in the mind, as explained above. It is nothing more than a change of the tattvic state of the mind, and what is left behind is only a capacity for falling into the same state more easily again. The mind falls back into the same state when it is under the inﬂuence of the same tattvic surroundings. The presence of the same things calls back the same mental state. The tattvic surroundings may be of two descriptions — astral and local. The astral inﬂuence is the effect upon the individual Prana of the then condition of the terrestrial Prana. If this eﬂ ect appears as the Agni Tattva, those of our concepts which have a prominent connection with this Tattva will make their appearance in the mind. Some of these are a hankering after wealth, a desire of progeny, etc. If we have the Vayu Tattva, a desire to travel may take possession of our minds, and so on. A minute tattvic analysis of all our concepts is of the greatest interest ; suffi ce it, however, to say here that the tattvic condition of Prana Often calls up into the mind objects which have been in similar previous conditions the objects of perception. It is this power, as already shown, that underlies dreams of one class. In the waking state, too, this phase of memory often acts as reminiscence. Local surroundings are constituted by those objects which the mind has been accustomed to perceive together with the immediate object of memory. This
is the power of association. Both these phenome constitute memory proper (Smriti) . Here the obje comes ﬁrst into the mind, and afterwards the act an the surroundings of perception. Another very impc tant kind of memory is what is called Buddhi, litera memory. This is the power by which we call to mi] what we have learnt of scientiﬁc facts. The procc of storing up these facts in the mind is the same, b the coming back into consciousness diff ers in this, th here the act comes into the mind ﬁrst and then t object. All the ﬁve T attvas and the foregoing ment phenomena may cause the phenomenon of memor Literary memory has a good deal to do with Yoga, i . the exercise of free will to direct the energies of t mind into desirable channels. While those impressio which take root in the mind on account of natui surroundings make the mind the unwilling slave the external world, Buddhi may lead it to bliss a‘ freedom. But will these tattvic surroundings alwa bring related phenomena into consciousness? N this depends upon their correlative strength. It well known that when the vibrations per second Akasha (sound)pass beyond a certain limit either w they do not affect the tympanum. Similar is the CE with the other T attvas. It is, for example, only certain number of Vibrations per second of the Te: to vibrate as it comes into contact with the external world . Just as the varying states of the external organs make us more or less sensitive to ordinary sensation, so different men might not hear the same sounds, might not see the same sights, the mental T attvas might not be affected by percepts of diff erent strength, or might be aﬂ ” ected in different degrees by percepts of the same strength . The question is, how is the variation of this mental tattvic strength produced? By exercise, and the absence of exercise. If we accus tom the mind, just as we do the body, to any particular percept or concept, the mind turns easily to those percepts and concepts. If, however, we give up the exercise, the mind becomes stiff and ceases by degrees to respond to those percepts and concepts. This is the phenomenon of forgetting. Let a student whose literary exercise is just opening the buds of his mind, which is just gaining strength enough to see into the causes and effects of things, give up his exercise. His mind will begin to lose that nice perception. The stiffer the mind becomes the less will the causal rela tion aff ect him, and the less he will know of it, until at last he loses all his power. Ceaseless inﬂuence and activity of one sort being impossible in the ordinary course of nature, every impression tends to pass away as soon as it is made. Its degree of stability depends upon the duration of the exercise. But although activity of one sort is impracticable, activity of some sort is always present in the mind…..
colour of the mind differing from that of other minds, and yet retaining its general character for a whole life, gives us the consciousness of personal identity. In every act which has been done, or which is, or may be done, the soul sees the same general colour, and hence the feeling of personal identity. In death the general colour changes, and although we have the same mind, we have a diﬂ erent consciousness. Hence no continuance of the feeling of personal identity is possible through death. Such is a brief account of the Manomaya Kosha, the mental coil in the ordinary state. The inﬂuence of the higher principle (the V ijﬁanamaya Kosha) through the exercise of Yoga induces in the mind a number of other manifestations. Psychic manifesta tions show themselves in the mind and the Prana, in the same way as mental manifestations are seen in ﬂ uencing and regulating the latter. The universe, as has been seen, has ﬁve planes of existence (which may also be divided into seven) . The forms of the earth, which are little pictures of the universe, have also the same ﬁve planes. In some of these organisms the higher planes of exist ence are absolutely latent. In man, in the present age, the V ijﬁanamaya Kosha and the lower principles make their appearance. We have now had an insight into the nature of the macrocosmic Prana, and we have seen also that almost every point in this ocean of life represents a separate individual organism .
T H E MIND.
Similar is the case with the macrocosmic Every Truti of that centre in the same way take whole of the macrocosmic mind. From ever the tattvic rays of the mental ocean go to ever and thus every point is a little picture Of the 111 mind. This is the individual mind. The universal mind is the original of all the of Prana, in the same way as the solar Prana original of the species of earth- life. Individua too , is similarly the original of all the individua festations of the Pranamaya Kosha. Simila soul, and 0 11 the highest plane, the individua is the perfect picture of all that comes below. With the four higher planes of life there different states of consciousness, the waki‘ dreaming, the sleeping and the Turiya. With these remarks the following extract fr P ras/ znoﬁanis/ zazl will be intelligible and instru “ Now Sauryayana Ga rgya asked him, ‘ Sir, body, what sleeps, and what remains aw Which of these luminous beings sees dreams has this rest? In whom do all these [manifes rest in the potential umnanifested state? ’ “ He answered him, ‘ O Gargya, as the ray setting sun are all collected in the luminous she then again go out, as he rises again and agai that is collected in the luminous sheath e v ' A ﬁ A n mr t l1 i c r p q q n n f lu s h t h e m a n fi n e s 1 not excrete, does not go. They say that he sleeps. The ﬁres of the Prana alone remain awakened in this body. The Apana is the Ga rhapatya ﬁre ; the Vyana is the right hand ﬁre. The Prana is the Ahavaniya ﬁre, which is made by the Garhapatya. That which carries equally everywhere the oblations of food and air, is the Samar i a. The mind (Manas) is the sacri ﬁcer (V ajamana) . The Udana is the fruit of the sacri ﬁce. He carries the sacriﬁcer every day to Brahma. Here this luminous being [ the mind] enjoys great things in dreams. Whatever w as seen, he sees again as if it were real ; whatever was heard, he hears as if it were real ; whatever w as experienced in dif ferent countries, in diff erent directions, he experiences the same again and again— the seen or the unseen, the heard or the unheard, thought or not thought upon. He sees all, appearing as the self of all mani festations. “ ‘ When he is overpowered by the Tejas, then this luminous being sees no dreams in this state ; then there appears in the body this rest [ the dreamless sleep]. “ ‘ In this state, my dear pupil, all [ that is enume rated below], stays in the ulterior Atma, like birds that resort to a tree for habitation— the Prithivi composite" F and the Prithivi non- composite ; the Apas composite and the Apas non- composite ; the Tejas composite and the Tejas non- composite ; the vayu composite and the By composite I mean that Tattva which has come into exist ence after the division into ﬁve, noticed in the ﬁrst essay. The non- composite means a Tattva before the division into ﬁve.
VI THE COSMIC PICTU RE - GALLERY . WE are directed by 0 111 Guru in the philosophy of the Tattvas to look into vacant space toward the sky, when the horiz on is perfectly clear, and ﬁx the atten tion there with the utmost possible strength. We are told that after suﬂ i cient practice we shall see there a variety of pictures— the most beautiful landscapes, the most gorgeous palaces of the world, and men, women and children in all the varying aspects of life. How is such a thing possible? What do we learn by this practical lesson in the science of attention? I think I have described in the essays with sufﬁcient explicitness the ocean of Prana with the sun for its centre, and have given a hint sufficiently suggestive of the nature of the macrocosmic mental and psychic atmospheres. It is of the essential nature of these atmospheres that every point therein forms a centre of action and reaction for the whole ocean. From what has been said already, it will be plain that each of these atmospheres has a limit of its own. The terres trial atmosphere extends only to a few miles, and the external boundary line of this sphere must, it will
readily understood, give it the appearance of an nge, just like that of the earth. The case is the 1e with the solar Prana, and the higher atmo
ICI ‘ CS . To begin with the terrestrial Prana, which the measured limits of our atmosphere, every little m of our earth, and of the most perfect organism, well as the most imperfect, makes a centre of action I reaction for the tattvic currents of terrestrial Ina. The Prana has the capability of being thrown 3 the shape of every organism, or, to use a diff erent >ression , the rays of Prana, as they fall upon every anism are returned from that organism according to well- known laws of reﬂection. These rays, as is tin well known, carry within themselves the pictures the objects upon which they may have fallen. Bear these within them, they go up to the limit of the ”estrial Prana noted above. It will be easy to con ve that within the imaginary sphere which sur nds our terrestrial Prana, we have now a magniﬁed ture of our central organism. Not one organism y, but all the smallest points ; the most imperfect g innings of organiz ed life, as well as the most per t organisms — all are pictured in this imaginary tere. It is a magniﬁcent picture- gallery, all that is n or heard, touched, tasted, or smelt 0 11 the face of these pictures are now consigned to the solar Prana, whence in due course they reach step by step to the universal intelligence itself. Secondly, these rays react upon themselves, and turning from the limiting sphere, are again reﬂected back to the centre. It is these pictures which the attentive mind sees in its noonday gaz e into vacancy, and it is these pictures, seen in this mysterious way, which give us the ﬁnest food for our imagination and intellect, and supply us with a far- reaching clue to the nature and working of the laws which govern the life of the macrocosm and the microcosm. For these pictures tell us that the smallest of our actions, on whatever plane of our exist ence, actions which may be so insigniﬁcant as to pass unnoticed even by ourselves, are destined to receive an everlasting record, as the effect of the past and the cause of the future. These pictures, again, tell us of the existence of the ﬁve universal T attvas , which plav so important a part in the universe. It is these pictures which lead us to the discovery of the manifold consti tution of man and the universe, and of those powers of the mind which have not yet received recognition at the hands of the official science of the day. That these truths have found place in the Upani shads may be seen from the following quotation from the Isbopanisbaa' (Mantra 4) “ The Atma does not move ; is one ; is swifter than the mind ; the senses reach it not; as it is the foremost in motion. It goes beyond the others in rapid motion …… Now such a thing can by no means be the atmo spheric air. It is evidently that phase of Prana which carries the pictures of all actions and all motions from every point of space to every other point, and to the limits of the Sarya- mandala. This phase of Prana is nothing more nor less than the Recorder. It holds in itself for ever and ever all the causes and effects, the antecedents and consequents of this world of ours. It is action itself. This means that all action is a change of phase of Prana. It is said in the above quotation that this Recorder lives in the Atma. Inasmuch as the Atma exists, this power always performs its function. The Prana draws its life itself from the Atma, and we accordingly ﬁnd a similarity between the qualities of the two. It is said of the Atma in the above extract that it does not move, and yet it moves faster than the mind. These appear to be contradictory qualities at the ﬁrst sight, and it is such qualities which make the ordinary God of common- place theologians the absurd being he always looks. Let us, however, apply these quali ties to Prana, and once understood on this plane, they will be quite as clearly understood on the highest plane, the Atma. It has been said more than once that from every point of the ocean of Prana the tattvic rays ﬂy in every direction, to every point within the Sarya- mandala. Thus the ocean of Prana is in eternal motion. For all this, however, does one point of this ocean ever change Thus while every point keeps its place, every point at the same time goes and shows itself in every other point. It is in the same simple way that the all- pervading Atma is in eternal motion and yet always at rest. Similar is the case with all the planes of life, all our actions, all our thoughts, all our aspirations, receive an everlasting record in the books of Ma tarishva . I must now notice these pictures a little more in detail. The science of photography tells us that under certain conditions the Visual pictures can be caught on the plane of the sensitive ﬁlm. But how can we account for the reading of letters at a distance of thirty miles or more? Such phenomena are to me a matter of personal experience. Very lately, while Sitting abstracted, or it may be in a kind of dream, about four o’clock in the morning, I read a post- card written by a friend to a friend about me, the very same night, at a could remember) , as I had seen before. I mention this phenomenon in particular, as in it the various requisites for the production of these phenomena are clearly deﬁned. We adduce from an analysis of this incident the following points 1 . The writer of the card meant when he was writing that I should read the card, and especially the paragraph which concerned me. 2 . I was very anxious to know the news about me which that card contained. 3. Of the frame of mind mentioned above in which my friend wrote the card, what was the result? The picture of his thoughts on the card, both on the physi cal and mental plane, ﬂew in every direction along the tattvic rays of the macrocosmic Prana and mind. A picture w as immediately made on the macrocosmic spheres, and from thence it bent its rays towards the destination of the post- card. No doubt all minds in the whole earth received a shock of this current of thought at the same time. But my mind alone was sensitive to the card and the news it contained. It was, therefore, on my mind alone that any impression was made. The rays were, as it were, refracted into my mind, and the result described above followed. It follows from this illustration that in order to receive the pictorial rays of the Prana we must have a mind in a state of sympathy, and not of antipathy ; that is to say, a mind free from all action or intense feeling for the time being is the ﬁtting receptacle for the pictorial representations of the cosmos, and so for her mind. This sympathetic state of mind may be natural to a person, or it may be acquired, but as re gards the term “ natural ” it may be mentioned that what we are in the habit of calling natural powers are really acquired, but they have been acquired in pre vions incarnations. Says Shiva : “ There are some to whom T attvas become known, when the mind is puriﬁed by habituation, either by the acquired rapidity of other births or by the kind ness of the Guru . It seems that two pieces of granite, the same to all intents and purposes externally, may have an entirely diff erent tattvic colour, for the colour of a thing de pends to a very great extent upon its tattvic surround ings. It is this occult colour which constitutes the real soul of things, although the reader must by this time know that the Sanskrit word Prana is more appropriate. It is no myth to say that the practised Yogi may with a single effort of his will bring the picture of any part of the world, past or present, before his mind’s eye — and not only visual pictures, as our illustration might lead the reader to think. The preservation and forma tion of visual pictures is only the work of the lumini ferous ether— the Tejas Tattva. The other T attvas perform their functions as well . The Akasha or sono riferous ether preserves all the sounds that have ever been heard or are being heard on earth, and similarly do the three others preserve the records of the remain ing sensations respectively. We see, therefore, that combining all these pictures, a Yogi in contemplat may have before his mind’s eye any man at distance whatsoever and may hear his voice a Glyndon, in Italy, seeing and hearing the couve tion of Viola and Zanoni in their distant home therefore not merely a dream of the poet, but a se tiﬁc reality. The only thing necessary is to hat sympathetic mind . The phenomena of mental t graphy, psychometry, clairvoyance, clairaudience, all phases of this tattvic action. Once understoo is all a very simple affair. It may be useful in place to off er some reﬂections as to how these pietr representations of a man’s present go to shape future. I shall ﬁrst attempt to Show how comp the record is . I may at the outset remind the re: of what was said above about the tattvic colou everything. It is this which gives individuality e to a piece of stone. This pictorial whole is only the cosmic counter n f t l1 p i 11 rl iv iri n nl p r ﬁn a m a v a Y n c h a n r f lu : n n il n f in this posture is at once made in the ecliptic. Not only is his external appearance pictured, but the hue of his life receives the fullest representation. If the Agni Tattva prevails in him at that moment, if there is the light of satisfaction in his face, if the look in his eyes is calm, collected, and pleasant, if he is so much absorbed in the gaz e as to forget everything else, T attvas separate or in composition will do their duty, and all the satisfaction, calmness, pleasure, attention or inattention will, to the ﬁnest possible Shade, be represented in the ' sphere of the ecliptic. If he walks or runs, comes down or goes up, the tattvic rays of Prana with the utmost faithfulness picture the gene rating and the generated colours in the same retentive sphere. A man stands with a weapon in his hand, with the look of cruelty in his eyes, with the glow of inhumanity in his veins, his Victim, man or animal, helpless or struggling before him. The whole phenomenon is instantaneously recorded. There stands the murderer and the Victim in their truest possible colours, there is the solitary room or jungle, the dirty Shed or the ﬁlthy slaughter- house ; all are there as surely and certainly as they are in the eye of the murderer or the victim himself. Let us again change the scene. We have a liar before us. He tells a lie, and thereby injures some brother man. No sooner is the word uttered than the Akasha sets to work with all possible activity. There we have the most faithful representation….. as I said before, these tattvic rays are united to the time that saw them leaving their record on the plane of our pictorial region. When, in the course of ages, the same time throws its shade again upon the earth, the pictorial rays, stored up long since, energiz e man- producing matter, and shape it according to their own potential energy, which now begins to become active. It will be readily conceded that the sun gives life to the earth — to men as well as to vegetables and minerals. Solar life takes human shape in the womb of the mother, and this is only an infusion of some one set of our pictorial rays into the sympathetic life, which already shows itself on our planet. These rays thus produce for themselves a human gross body in the womb of the mother, and then having the now somewhat different and differing maternal body, start on their terrestrial journey. As time advances, the pictorial representation changes its tattvic postures, and with it the gross body does the same. In the case of the re- birth of the man we saw gaz ing on the mountains, the calm, watchful, contented atti tude of the mind which he cultivated then has its inﬂuence upon the organism now, once more the man enjoys the beauty of nature and so is pleased and haPPY But now take the case of the cruel murderer. He is by nature cruel, he still yearns to murder and destroy, and he could not be restrained from his horrible practices, but that the picture of the ebbing life of the Victim is now part and parcel of his constitution ; the pain, the terror, and the feeling of despair and helplessness are there in all their streng t h. Occasion ally he feels as if the blood of life were leaving his very veins. There is no apparent cause, and yet he suffers pain ; he is subject to unaccountable ﬁts of terror, despair and helplessness. His life is miserable ; slowly but surely it wanes away. Let the curtain fall on this scene. The incarnated thief now comes on the stage. His friends leave him one by one or he is driven away from them. The picture of the lonely house must assert its power over him. He is doomed to a lonely house. The picture of somebody coming into the house through some 1111 frequented part, stealing some of his property, perhaps strangling him, makes its appearance with the fullest strength. The man is doomed to eternal cow ardice. He draw s towards himself irresistibly the men who will cause him the same grief and heartrending he long ago caused to others. This posture of heartrending grief has its inﬂuence upon him in the ordinary way, and it creates its surroundings under the same inﬂuence. Take, too, the case of the adulterer. As he walks upon the earth, he is attracted towards as many of the other sex as he has guiltily loved before. He loves one, and his love might meet with a favourable response, but very soon a second, a third, and a fourth picture make their appearance, which are, as a matter of course, antagonistic to the ﬁrst and repel it. The pled; es of love are quite unaccountably broken, and the heart rending pain that is caused may well be imagined. All the jealousy and all the complicated quarrels of lovers might with ease be traced to causes such as these. And those who have sinned by selling their love for gold long ago will now love and will in return be looked down upon with contempt for their poverty. What can be more miserable than to be denied even the luxury of love through very poverty? These illustrations are, I believe, sufficient to explain the law according to which these cosmic pictures govern our future lives. Whatever other sins may be committed under the innumerable varying circum stances of life, their tattvic eff ects can easily be traced through the pictorial representations of the cosmos. It is not diﬂ i cult to understand that the picture of each individual organism in Prana, although ever changing with the varying postures of the object, remains the same in substance. Every object exists in its form of Prana until, in the course of evolution, Prana itself merges into the higher atmosphere of
Every genus and every species of living organism upon the face of the earth is pictured in Prana, and it is these pictures which on the highest plane of existence correspond in my opinion to the ideas of Plato. A very interesting question arises at this point. Are these pictures of eternal existence, or do they only come into existence after formations have taken place on the ….. I have also said that these pictures have their counterparts in the mental and the higher atmospheres. Now it might be said that just as these solar pictures recur again and again, there are times at which these mental pictures also recur. The ordinary deaths known to us are terrestrial deaths. That is to say they consist in the withdrawal of the inﬂuence of the solar pictures for a time from the earth. When that time has ex pired , the duration depending upon the colours of the picture, they throw their inﬂuence again upon the earth, and we have terrestrial re- birth. We may die any number of terrestrial deaths, and yet our solar life may not be extinct. But men of the present Manvantara may die solar deaths under certain circumstances. Then they pass out of the inﬂuence of the sun, and are born again only in the reign of the second Mann. Men who now die solar deaths will remain in a state of bliss all through the present Manvantara. Their re- birth may also be delayed for more than one Manvantara. All these pictures remain in the bosom of Manu during the Manvantaric Pralaya. In the same way men may undergo higher deaths, and pass their time in a state of even higher and more enduring bliss. The mental coil may be broken, too, just as the gross, the terrestrial, and the solar may be, and then the blessed soul remains in bliss and unborn until the dawn of the second Day of Brahma. Higher still and longer is the state which follows Brahmic death. Then the spirit is at rest for the remaining Kalpa and the Mahapralaya that follows. After this it will be easy to understand the meaning of the H indfr doctrine, that during the Night of Brahma, as, indeed, during all the minor Nights, the human soul, and, in fact, the whole of the universe, is hidden in the bosom of Brahma like the tree in the seed…….
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