We are like a lamp that has five lampshades over our light. Each of the lampshades is a different color and density. As the light shines through the lampshades, it is progressively changed in color and nature. It is a bitter-sweet coloring. On the one hand, the shades provide the individualized beauty of each lamp. Yet, the lampshades also obscure the pure light. The Yoga path of Self-realization is one of progressively moving inward, through each of those lampshades, so as to experience the purity at the eternal center of consciousness, while at the same time allowing that purity to animate through our individuality. These five levels are called koshas, which literally means sheaths.
Physical - Annamaya kosha
Energy - Pranamaya kosha
Mental - Manamaya kosha
Wisdom - Vijnanamaya kosha
Bliss - Anandamaya kosha
Self - Atman
Kosha means sheath, like the lampshades covering the light, or like the series of wooden dolls pictured below. Maya means appearance, as if something appears to be one way, but is really another. Advaita Vedanta suggests that you imagine a dark night in which you think you see a man, only to find that it was an old fence post that was hard to see at first; that is maya. Here, it means that each of the sheaths or koshas is only an appearance. In truth, all of the levels, layers, koshas, or sheaths of our reality is only appearance, or maya (while also very real in the sense of dealing with the external world), and that underneath all of those appearances, we are pure, divine, eternal consciousness, or whatever name you prefer to call it. This is one of the fundamental principles of Advaita Vedanta meditation. While some view maya as meaning that nothing is real, and turn this into a cold-hearted intellectual practice, others view the illusion of maya as being shakti, the creative force of the universe. In this way, the maya of the koshas is experienced both as unreal and, at the same time, as the beautiful manifestations of the universal oneness.
Physical - Annamaya kosha
Anna means food. All of the physical aspects of life come and go, and are consumed by another aspect of external reality. Thus, the outermost of the koshas is called the sheath of food, or Annamaya kosha.
In Vedanta practice, we train this aspect of ourselves, take care of it, nurture it, so that we can both enjoy our external lives and go inward without it being an obstacle during meditation time. In meditation, we become aware of Annamaya kosha, explore it, and then go inward, to and through the other koshas.
Energy - Pranamaya kosha
The next of the koshas is Pranamaya kosha. Prana means energy. It is the vital force that produces the subtle vibrations related to breath, and which are the driving force behind the physical aspect of the senses and the operation of the physical body. It allows the invisible indweller, our True Self to be able to animate in the external world. At the same time, however, it allows the eternally still, silent center of consciousness to be mistakenly identified as the moving, visible physical body.
For both a healthy life and the practice of meditation, Vedanta says that it is very useful, or essential that this level of our being be trained, regulated, and directed, so that it flows smoothly. In meditation, we become aware of Pranamaya kosha, explore it, and then go inward, to and through the other koshas.
Mental - Manamaya kosha
The next of the koshas is Manamaya kosha. Mana means mind. It is the level of processing thoughts and emotions. It is in direct control of the operation, through the prana, of the physical body and senses. It is like a supervisor in a factory, in that it gives instructions, but is not supposed to be the manager of the factory of life. Because of this, it naturally has doubts, and created illusions. When it receives clear instructions from the deeper level, it functions quite well. However, when it is clouded over by its illusions, the deeper wisdom is clouded over.
After taking care of the physical body and training the energy flow of prana, the most important part to be trained in positive ways is this level of mind. In meditation, we become aware of Manamaya kosha, explore it, and then go inward, to and through the remaining koshas.
Wisdom - Vijnanamaya kosha
The next of the koshas is Vijnanamaya kosha. Vijnana means knowing. It is the sheath of wisdom that is underneath the processing, thinking aspect of mind. It knows, decides, judges, and discriminates between this and that, between useful and not useful. It is also the level of ego consciousness, meaning the powerful wave of I-am-ness. This I-am-ness itself is a positive influence, but when it gets co-mingled with the memories, and is clouded over by the manas, it loses its positive strength.
A major part of sadhana (spiritual practice) is gaining ever increasing access to this level of our being. It is the level that has the higher wisdom to seek Truth, to go within, in search of the eternal center of consciousness.
Bliss - Anandamaya kosha
Anandamaya kosha is the most interior of the koshas, the first of the koshas surrounding the Atman, the eternal center of consciousness. Ananda means bliss. However, it is not bliss as a mere emotion experienced at the level of the sheath of mind. Ananda is a whole different order of reality from that of the mind. It is peace, joy, and love that is underneath, beyond the mind, independent of any reason or stimulus to cause a happy mental reaction. It is simply being, resting in bliss called ananda.
Yet, even this bliss, however wonderful it is, is still a covering, a sheath, a lampshade covering the pure light of consciousness. It is the subtle most of the five koshas. In the silence of deep meditation, this too is let go of, so as to experience the center.
Atman - Self
Atman is the Self, the eternal center of consciousness, which was never born and never dies. In the metaphor of the lamp and the lampshades, Atman is the light itself, though to even describe it as that is incomplete and incorrect. The deepest light shines through the koshas, and takes on their colorings.
Atman, the Self, has been best described as indescribable. The realization of that, in direct experience, is the goal of Yoga meditation, Advaita Vedanta, and Tantra practices taught in the Himalayan tradition.
KoSa, Koza, KSH.... meanings related to the ROOT SOUND KOSHA and the name KSH as well. This is what we can still remember nowadays and find in the Bharata language of the ancient time.
m. koSa bud
m. n. koSa trunk
m. n. koSa mass
m. n. koSa vessel
m. n. koSa store
m. n. koSa box
m. n. koSa store-room
m. n. koSa case
m. n. koSa treasury
m. n. koSa lexicon
m. koza sheath or integument of a plant
m. koza membrane covering an egg
m. koza encasement
m. koza cupboard
m. koza bucket
m. koza treasury
m. koza penis
m. koza inner part of the fruit of jackfruit tree and of similar fruits [ Artocarpus Integrifolia ]
m. koza cover
m. koza seed-vessel
m. koza store
m. koza nutmeg
m. koza drawer
m. koza case
m. koza trunk
m. koza pod
m. koza cask
m. koza interior or inner part of a carriage
m. koza repository
m. koza covering
m. koza sheath
m. koza accumulated wealth
m. koza dictionary
m. koza store-room
m. koza nut-shell
m. koza drinking-vessel
m. koza treasure
m. koza cloud
m. koza vessel for holding liquids
m. koza poetical collection
m. koza vessel 0
m. koza kind of bandage
m. koza hub 0
m. koza cup
So, sheath or veil, or shape, body... considering interpolation...
Saints - Jedi Simon
The concept that I was talking about in Keshe plasma reactor group 17/07/2019
When we meet the limit of out speech, topic, investigation and talks, we shall see that everything that is added to it shall lower its energy level, and not create a more profound teaching, meaning, understanding and comprehension of the matter. This loop, or recursive hypnotic ring, which is the feeling we usually have when things start going nowhere, is in fact the static and inertial effect of loosing strenght and falling backwards to earth, or the past condition, where memory is to be considered gravitational, and novelty, within the purity of the heart and soul, a way to solve those problems that memory cannot solve due to its suceptibility, and fear of the egO, that never wants to forgive, change idea, listen, see or even accept the fact that its own vision could be based upon misinterpretation, error, faulty vision, perception, misguided sensing, cultural prejudice and other veils, that nevetheless, shall be there to teach us to deal with what is fluent in a fluent way.
"As Water within water", we should try to avoid the dimensions of the egO, if We truly seek for harmony and equilibrium, that is the key to a perfect alchemical solution of any of the problems that We ourselves create to the world we live in, which is part of our external being, if we do not accept the idea anynmore of a sheath of skin, placed there to tell us what is beautiful and what is not, as the material limit of our soul, consciousness, and being. We should try hard not to become icebergs ourselves, letting our heart go cold, because in that case, rigidity, will force us to into the memory we forced upon us. This, is simple words, the gravitational weight of memory, that is not alive anymore, but a shadow of experience, once it is not lived within daily, but taught, explained, told or even forced upon those who do not know how to swim, beacuse they have never tried to swim.
So, what is the use of speaking about the see if
you have never seen it? Reach it and You shall learn how to swim. Once We obtain
the stability that the egO is looking for, You shall soon find out that more and
more is what it is looking for. No wonder, icebergs of this size, start
wondering about and floating without even knowing where they are going. Flexible
is superior. Rigid is inferior. Happiness, so, is to be related to natural
tropism and the ability to change, without breaking, and transforming,
transmuting, or transmutating the soul, the body and conditions, happily.
If susceptibility is the problem, then, You should exercise Arts that require constant listening and adjustment. If You are stubborn, You should practice Martial Arts, that teach You in a practical and material way what your ears do not want to hear and your eyes to see. It shall hurt a little more than the subtle path of harmonical and beautiful transformation of matters within form that Art itself gives us the opportunity to reach, within respect and the understanding of work and values, but it shall be a functional path to those who do not catch the whisper, and need matter and pain to shake them a little.
Icerbergs, are powerful manifestations of purity and integrity on one hand, although they miss the clarity that it takes to share their treasures, and inevitably, when it pleases the sky, they shall melt back to water and give back their dreams. Gravitationally speaking, We hold tight to our material state strongly, because of the fear of loosing it, although magnetically We could be happy anywhere in the multiverse, as it happens in our dreams every night. So, memory, when it does not allow the seeker to see anymore, is useless, because it shall pull him back towards the past. The weight of adfirmations, beliefs, faith and ideas, forces ideas to become identities, and entities to follow what these entities say, and act accordingly. All this takes place as we mutually build false assumptions that shall not allow to reach he truth. We ourselves and the seekers themselves, scientinsts and monks, shall find out one day that the boat is sinking, the plane is not going to fly anywhere, because of its weight, or things are simply not the way we thought and understood, considering the partial vision that made our temporary reality what we called totality.
Sooner of later, ice shall melt, and the Iceberg, shall go back to its original state of fluidity. So, wheels within wheels, is the sentence that allows us to deal with mechanisms, technology and engines, that require moving parts, although the Force itself is spinning all the time within torsion fields, and the vortex is the natural condition of the flows. This unites, and pushes, althought it is pulling at the same time, and even if from our point of view "the stronger shall give to the weaker", is a correct sentence, on the other hand, "the weaker shall take from the stronger" is "another correct sentence" that tells us a little more about the nature of the Tao, which is not asymmetrical at all, but shares double duality within harmonical change and equilibrium.
Tality is not immanent. Here, we are talking about the idea of strenght itself, as something related to a positive giver whilst a negative taker is absorbing it.... male upon female understanding, whilst Tao, does not teach us to practice only one thing at a time, but two. The weaker, so, shall allow the male, because of its beauty, to reach the other side of the multiverse just to embrace her and see her again, without even moving a finger to attract the male, because He is already in love with her. So, as we know that this Force exists, let's not polarize our attention just on one side of the flow, rather than the other, because they are both acting as one, since dualism and partiality are added by our limited understanding.
Strenght, so, shall be the amount of effort You shall place there, either to pull or to push something. Whichever side You chose, as long as You act accordingly, it shall work because of synergy. What this means is clear, and does not require further explanation. If you do not believe in sharing, so you shall follow disharmony and the dark side shall take over. You shall damage your Tao and darkness will not allow You to reach the light. If You do not understand that the sentence: "the weaker shall take from the stronger" is not a revolutionary one and has nothing to do with property, ownership, power upon people or things, beings or matter, being itself a valid reflection of the previous sentence, You shall finally reach its understanding going back to the word "Dharma" which is in so many ways the ancient word for "Natural Law".
So, condensations, or egOs, are truly the
problem, and the third position of harmonic equilibrium has yet to be understood.
These two dots, so, represent both the adfirmation of singularity and duality, at the same time, placed within the moving field of light and darkness,
within the spiritual realm. These dots are Koshas. Their shape and position
koshas. Fields and their shape and flow are Koshas. Balance of the fields and
equilibrium are Koshas. Border of the multiverse, as a symbol of perfection, the
ring, that unites the unlimited vastity and contains all dimensions, are
still Koshas. So, all this understanding truly depends on which side of it you
are looking at it. "Clockwise and anticlockwise", would be the answer: "How
often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever
remains, however improbable, must be the truth? "
The Vigyananamaya kosha according to Swami Sivananda
The Vigyananamaya Kosha consists of the intellect in conjunction with the five
organs of knowledge or the Jnana-Indriyas.
During sleep it gets involution or Laya along with Chidabhasa or the reflection of Pure Consciousness.
During waking state it is the doer. It is an effect like a jar and is inanimate. It shines in borrowed feathers.
It borrows its light temporarily from its source, just as the moon borrows its light from the sun. It is not the eternal Self.
The five sheaths (pancha-kosas) are described in the Taittiriya Upanishad From
gross to fine they are:
Annamaya kosha, "food" sheath (Anna)
Pranamaya kosha, "energy" sheath (Prana)
Manomaya kosha "mind" sheath (Manas)
Vijñānmāyā kosha, "discernment" sheath (Vijnana)
Anandamaya kosha, "bliss" sheath (Ananda)
According to Vedanta the wise person, being aware of the subtle influences of the five elements within each kosha, ever discerns the Self amidst appearances.
The five sheaths
This is the sheath of the physical self, named from the fact that it is nourished by food. Living through this layer humans identify themselves with a mass of skin, flesh, fat, bones, and filth, while the human of discrimination knows oneself, the only reality that there is, as distinct from the body. The physical body is formed of the essence of food. Birth and death are the attributes of the Annamaya Kosha.
Pranamaya means composed of prana, the vital principle, the force that vitalizes and holds together the body and the mind. It pervades the whole organism, its one physical manifestation is the breath. As long as this vital principle exists in the organisms, life continues. Coupled with the five organs of action it forms the vital sheath. In the Vivekachudamani it is a modification of vayu or air, it enters into and comes out of the body.
Manomaya means composed of manas or mind. The mind (manas) along with the five sensory organs is said to constitute the manomaya kosa. The manomaya kosa, or “mind-sheath” is said more truly to approximate to personhood than annamaya kosa and pranamaya kosha. It is the cause of diversity, of I and mine. Sankara likens it to clouds that are brought in by the wind and again driven away by the same agency. Similarly, man's bondage is caused by the mind, and liberation, too, is caused by that alone.
Vijñānmāyā means composed of Vijñāna, or intellect, the faculty which discriminates, determines or wills. Chattampi Swamikal defines Vijñānmāyā as the combination of intellect and the five sense organs. It is the sheath composed of more intellection, associated with the organs of perception. Sankara holds that the buddhi, with its modifications and the organs of knowledge, form the cause of man’s transmigration. This knowledge sheath, which seems to be followed by a reflection of the power of the cit, is a modification of prakrti. It is endowed with the function of knowledge and identifies itself with the body, organs etc.
This knowledge sheath cannot be the supreme self for the following reasons;
It is subject to change.
It is insentient.
It is a limited thing.
It is not constantly present.
Anandamaya means composed of ananda, or bliss. In the Upanishads the sheath is known also as the causal body. In deep sleep, when the mind and senses cease functioning, it still stands between the finite world and the self. Anandamaya, or that which is composed of Supreme bliss, is regarded as the innermost of all. The bliss sheath normally has its fullest play during deep sleep: while in the dreaming and wakeful states, it has only a partial manifestation. The blissful sheath (anandamaya kosha) is a reflection of the Atman which is truth, beauty, bliss absolute.
For those who are familiar with Panchakosha:
Just as each of the five elements (earth, water, fire, air, and ether) appear in corresponding subtlety among each of the five senses so too the intellect cognizes ever subtler causes and effects at play through each of the five sheaths. For example, the annamayakosha, the coarsest sheath, is based in the earth element, which is guarded by Ganesha, while the very subtlest sheath Anandamaya is based in the quanta/ether element, and is guarded by a black disc of utter darkness over the sun, which can be removed only by Ganesha.
Awareness of that reflection of atman/self within the most subtle sheath, Anandamayakosha, however, is but the foundation for discerning that which the elements, energies, senses, and kosha serve.
Annamaya kosha (food-apparent-sheath) is translated as food sheath, corresponds roughly to the sthula-sharira (coarse body, physical body). This is the sheath of the physical self, named from the fact that it is nourished by food. Living through this layer man identifies himself with a mass of skin, flesh, fat, bones, and filth, while the man of viveka (discrimination) knows his own Self, the only reality that there is, as distinct from the body. It has the most dense and slow vibrational frequency. This body cannot exist without contact with the other koshas (subtle sheaths) or bodies (the pranamaya, manomaya, vijnanamaya, and anandamaya koshas), yet for the most part it remains barely activated in regards to its highest evolutionary potential.
Anna means rasa of prithvi and this is the source of life on earth. Annamaya kosha is the controller, cause, producer and consumer (sanchalaka, kaarana, utpadaka, and upabhokta) of physical body but is still different than physical body.
Annamaya kosha as the name suggests is made of anna. The satwik meaning of anna is “the essence of earth”. Water, food grains, fruits and vegetables are all the products of earth; from this, milk, ghee and flesh is made and all of this is considered anna. The human body is made up of anna and it grows and gets strengthened with anna and later after the death of physical body gets merged in the earth. Thus the physical body, which is produced and later gets dissolved in the Earth, is generally known as annamaya kosha. We must understand that the physical body made of flesh and blood is under the control of annamaya kosha. At the time of death, when physical body disintegrates annamaya kosha remains intact and along with the soul leaves the body to reach heaven or hell. That is why, it is said that the desire for food is there in ghosts also. Thus it is clear that annamaya kosha is the cause, producer and consumer of physical body but still different than the physical body.
Importance of Annamayakosha
Personality of the individual i.e., physique as well as traits depend on the condition of annamaya kosha, the formation of which continues life after life. The physique in the next birth is decided by the state of annamaya kosha of earlier births. All the individual differences existing in men are attributed to the genes in the body, which are acquired from parents. On contrary to this, ancient Hindu wisdom proves that man, his personality and destiny are decided by his subtle bodies, which he brings from previous births.
Modern man, who is ignorant of this ultimate truth is inviting all sorts of deformities in his annamaya kosha and thereby damaging not only this birth but the births to come.
There are three koshas within annamaya kosha:-
sthula (Physical) — In which taste and weight of food is realized.
sukshma (Subtle) — In which properties and impact of food are felt.
kaaran (Causal) — In which samskaras of food are preserved. Roots of many physical deformities lie in annamaya kosha.
Refinement and development of annamaya kosha is possible through the following methods:
The sage Patanjali states in the Yoga Sutra that an asana should be understood, practiced and experienced with firmness, steadiness and endurance in the body, goodwill in the head and awareness and delight in the heart. The performance should be nourishing and illuminating.
Sthiram sukham asanam—Yoga Sutras II:46
(Asana is perfect firmness of body, steadiness of intelligence and benevolence of spirit)
It is a misconception that the sutra advocates comfortable postures. If that were so, these would be asanas of pleasure (bhog-asanas), not yogasanas. Practicing a variety of asanas clears the nervous system, causes the energy to flow without obstruction and ensures an even distribution of it during pranayama.
Each asana performs five functions—conative, cognitive, mental, intellectual and spiritual. Conative action is exertion of the organs of action. Cognitive action is the perception of its results. When the two are fused, mind's discriminative faculty guides these organs to perform the asanas more correctly. Rhythmic energy flow and awareness is experienced without interruption throughout the body. A pure state of joy is felt. This is the manifestation of dharana (complete absorption of the mind on a single point or task) and dhyana (meditation) in the practice of an asana.
Tatah dvandvah anabhighatah—Yoga Sutras II:48
(From then on, the sadhaka, or devoted seeker, is undisturbed by any duality)
Asana puts an end to any differentiation between the body, mind and soul. Dualities don't exist for the sadhaka . When body, mind and soul unite in a perfect posture, he is in a state of beatitude. In that exalted position, the mind, which is at the root of dualistic perception, loses its identity and ceases to disturb him. There is no longer joy or sorrow, heat or cold, pain or pleasure. This is perfection in action and freedom in consciousness. These two sutras should always be practiced while performing asanas.
As the sadhaka progresses, he develops physical firmness and patience to persevere in or sustain the practice. He also gains endurance, will power and concentrated attention to experience the divinity within.
In the beginning it requires effort to master the asanas. It involves hours, days, months and years of work. While performing asanas, the sadhaka has to relax the brain cells and activate the cells of the vital organs and structural and skeletal body. Then intelligence and consciousness will spread to each and every cell. The conjunction of effort, concentration and balance in asana forces us to live intensely in the present moment.
We shall describe here categories of asanas: standing, forward bends, supine, inversion, abdominal and lumbar, twisting, back bends and balancing.
Standing poses: Beginners should start with these as they bring elasticity in joints and muscles and build up stamina and physical stability. This constitutes the most basic training in the early stages of yoga sadhana (practice).
Forward bending asanas: In these postures the posterior half of the body is stretched. These prepare you to proceed further in yoga and bring consistency in the development of physical and mental pliability.
Sitting and supine postures: Sitting upright and supine extending positions help a sadhaka prepare physically and mentally for pranayama.
Inverted postures: These help recover from everyday stress. They give vitality, mental balance and emotional stability.
Toning of abdominal organs and lumbar: These tone and massage the abdominal organs and strengthen the pelvic and lumbar areas.
Twisting: It consists of lateral stretching and twisting of the spine, toning the internal organs and reaching new horizons while tranquilizing the mind.
Back bends: These bring physical and mental sharpness and alertness. The postures are the opposite of forward bends as are the effects. In forward bends the posterior spine is extended, bringing consistency and mental peace, whereas in back bends the anterior spine is extended and stretched. The effect is invigorating and enlivening.
Balancing postures: These strengthen the arms and wrists and exercise the abdominal organs. They also make the body feel light and help attain a good bearing.
The Five Koshas
Swami Satyananda Saraswati
Satsang in Toulon, France, June 9, 1984
In philosophy, the body, mind and spirit are understood as one continuity, but in fact eastern and western thought were never in agreement with each other. Western philosophy originated from Greece while eastern philosophy originated in India. Greek philosophers in general and western philosophers in particular spoke about the object. Indian philosophers in general and in particular spoke about consciousness, and for many centuries western thinkers could never accept anything beyond object as tangible: here is the object, I can see it, I can touch it, therefore it is.
However, in yoga and in vedanta, object and consciousness are interrelated. In fact, modern science, what you call physics, speaks in exactly the same way as yoga. Both modern physics and ancient yoga move absolutely parallel to each other in explaining the reality of matter and consciousness.
Body, mind and spirit are interconnected, interrelated and interpenetrating. Therefore, a person is a combination of three things: firstly, the gross body, secondly, the subtle or astral body and thirdly, the causal body or unconscious. These three bodies constitute you, me and everyone, but they are gross divisions, broad classifications.
Each body has a dimension and a layer. You can call it a field. Just as you say electromagnetic field or radioactive field, in exactly the same way there are fields in your body. In vedanta, they are known as koshas which means ‘sheaths’. These koshas are five in number: annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijnanamaya and anandamaya, and are further sub-divisions of the three bodies, which represent the three states of your daily experience.
Every day you have three types of experiences. One is the waking experience in which you experience through your senses and mind. The second experience is dream. In dream you do not experience through the senses, but through your subconscious mind. The third experience is sleep in which there is no knowledge of time and space, no knowledge about yourself or about anything in sleep, but when you get up in the morning, you know that you slept well the night before.
So every day the individual self undergoes these three experiences alternately. These experiences relate to a particular field. Whenever your individual self goes to one particular realm, it has one experience, and as your individual self changes the field, realm or dimension, it has another experience. For example, if you go to the North Pole, you will feel cold, or if you go to a tropical country, you will feel hot.
The first kosha is annamaya, the physical body. Annamaya kosha can be sattwic, rajasic or tamasic. The word sattwa means harmony, balance and tranquillity, where you create a balance between activity and peace. Rajas means dynamic, active, violent. Tamas means dull and inert. Through the hatha yoga shatkriyas, you develop a sattwic annamaya kosha and when annamaya kosha becomes sattwic, then the bouncing of energy is much greater.
In modern science it is said that all the time, the whole day and night, atomic energy is bouncing in and out from this physical body like a pendulum. Of course, you cannot see it, but scientifically it has been seen that just like a pendulum swings from left to right, left to right, in the same manner everybody is emitting or throwing away these atoms. The sattwic body creates a longer bouncing, a tamasic body perhaps no bouncing at all, while a rajasic body has a bouncing but it has no limitation.
Now when these atoms or atomic particles bounce off your body and come back, there is a period of rest. That period of rest is always in the pendulum also. When it goes to the left and then turns to the right, there is a moment of rest. In the same way, when you do pranayama, in between inhalation and exhalation there is a point of rest. That is called timelessness and it is very short. Sometimes it can be a one-thousandth part of one second and sometimes a ten-thousandth part of a second. In that short period, the body transmits energy which is sattwic, rajasic or tamasic. Therefore, annamaya kosha, which is the container of the other koshas, is tackled through the practices of the hatha yoga shatkriyas.
The second kosha is pranamaya, the kosha composed of prana, or life force. This prana is a part of cosmic life. Each and every creature, each and every thing in this world is a part of cosmic life. Prana is the force or energy for all kinds of motion. Prana is a Sanskrit word meaning movement, motion or vibration.
Pranic energy is in constant motion throughout life. It is not only in human beings, animals, herbs or trees, not only in oceans and mountains, minerals and bacteria. The tiniest part of an atom has prana. This prana is both visible and invisible. We need not talk about invisible prana now. Visible prana is manifesting before you. Wherever there is prana there is movement, growth, change and activity and where there is no prana there is no activity. When we die the body dissipates because it has become completely bereft of prana.
Prana is one item of your total composition and should also be dealt with in yoga. If the pranas are agitated or there is a pranic imbalance, there is imbalance everywhere. To understand prana you need to know a little about positive and negative atoms. The pranas are in the atmosphere in the form of positive and negative ions, which keep on bouncing, migrating and reintegrating. A balance has to be created between them.
If you study the science of the behaviour of positive and negative ions, you will understand the importance of balancing the prana in the body, because prana represents the positive energy in the body, and mind represents the negative energy. When there is a balance between positive and negative energy, then you can see illumination and everything is in harmony.
This prana is responsible for the action of the karmendriyas, the organs of action, just as electrical energy is responsible for the functioning of a microphone or light bulb. If the electricity which is being supplied somewhere in 220 volts becomes 440 volts, everything will burn. If the electricity becomes 120 volts, then there will also be a crisis. Therefore, the electricity has to be adjusted according to the capacity of the microphone or the bulbs. Similarly, there has to be coordination between the prana and the indriyas or sense organs. If there is too much prana, then your children are sometimes hyperactive. Hyperactivity in the body is due to hyperactivity of the prana.
There are five karmendriyas: feet, hands, vocal cords, urinary and excretory systems. Indriya means vehicle, tool or sense. Karma means action. Through these five karmendriyas you perform five gross actions. Prana is the force behind them. You have seen how old people become slow due to lack of prana. Pranamaya kosha is the energy in annamaya kosha.
There are five main pranas: prana, apana, udana, samana and vyana. These forms of prana control various functions in the physical body. For example, urination, excretion, insemination and childbirth are consequences of apana. Then there are five auxiliary or secondary pranas.
Prana is not a mechanical outcome of the body as it is understood in modern medical science. According to the classical tradition prana enters the womb in the fourth month of pregnancy. When an embryo is developed in the mother’s womb, it is part of the mother’s body and prana. After the third month, the independent or individual pranas manifest in the foetus. That is to say, from the fourth month, the mother’s prana and the prana of the embryo become two different pranas. Therefore, remember that prana is universal energy.
Pranamaya kosha is purified through the practice of pranayama, because pranayama makes the pranic energy penetrate into each and every cell and fibre of the body. Pranayama does not literally mean breathing exercise. The word pranayama is composed of two ideas, prana and ayama, meaning field, dimension or area. Pranayama means extending the field of prana. In this physical body you have a field of prana. It is the subtle form of energy and can be measured. This prana shakti can also get blocked. It can be in excess in some parts of the body and sometimes there is an imbalance in the prana.
The third kosha is manomaya, the kosha composed of the mind. Mind is consciousness. It is a field of energy by itself. Even as prana is the positive field of energy, mind is the negative field of energy. In Sanskrit, the mind is known as manas, and has three dimensions. In fact, in Samkhya philosophy, they say that the mind has ten dimensions. Here they mean the mind of everyone, not only of human beings but of lower animals, the vegetable kingdom, the mind of each and everything in this world.
There are ten stages in the evolution of the mind from the most crude to the most fine. If you want to study those ten stages, you should read the Samkhya Sutras. However, out of those ten stages of mind, three are known to human beings: the conscious mind, the subconscious mind and the unconscious mind. Now these three stages are divisions of the human mind. The literal meaning of manas is ‘that by which you cognize, perceive and understand’. Perception, cognition and understanding are the basic and primary qualities of the mind.
This mind is connected with time, space and causality. What are past, present and future? They are the three so-called divisions of the same mind. What is the form of the mind? It is said that the mind moves at the greatest speed. Do you know the speed of an object? French trains run at 240 kilometres per hour. You know the speed of sound and of light, but do you know the speed of the mind. If only you could create a mental train! The mind is a very subtle unit and when it goes to the subconscious level, it begins to go into the unknown past.
Carl Jung used to talk about archetypes, dreams and visions. He said there is no known source of these things. Whether they are transferred to you from your parents or from a super space, from your previous incarnations or from some unknown transmissions, there is a primitive stock of archetypes within you. This is called samskara. It is known as the seed body or the unconscious. These are the three broad divisions of the mind.
Now this mind can be brought closer, that is to say, time, space and causality can be brought closer. When we are on the external conscious plane, the distance between time, space and causality is long and when you are in meditation, then the gap between time, space and causality is very short. In fact, if the mind can sometimes stop, time stops. A lot of work has been done on this by modern physicists.
The mind which I am talking about is part of the cosmic mind. Of course, I think that I have an individual mind. Everyone thinks this, but it is ignorance because we do not know, just like an ignorant person may feel that the light burning in the light bulb is individual, but another person understands that the energy is coming from the powerhouse. In the same way, this mind is part of the universal mind. How can we put this mind in touch with the cosmic mind? Through raja yoga practices.
The fourth kosha is vijnanamaya. Vijnana means psyche. Vijnana is a Sanskrit word from the prefix vi and jnana meaning knowledge or awareness, inner perception or experience. Vijnana has two meanings: external science and also inner experience. Therefore, whenever you have any experience which is subjective in nature, it is a consequence of vijnanamaya kosha. Whatever you are dreaming is a projection of vijnanamaya kosha, and in your meditation, concentration or mantra yoga, when you see lights and flowers, figures, angels or saints, smell perfumes or hear sounds, it is the consequence or result of vijnanamaya kosha.
Vijnanamaya kosha is related to a very unknown part of the universe and it is a link or sutra between the conscious mind, the individual mind and the universal mind. Universal knowledge comes to the conscious mind through vijnanamaya kosha or the psychic mind. Vijnanamaya kosha does not depend on time, space and causation factors.
You may not have seen Peking, but vijnanamaya kosha can give you a complete film of Peking because it is not limited by time past, present or future. The mind has its eyes on the object, but vijnanamaya kosha has its eye on the universe, and therefore Hindus say that vijnanamaya kosha has a thousand heads and a thousand eyes, a thousand hands and a thousand feet. This means it can see anywhere and think anything.
How can it be developed? It can be developed through tantra because tantra is related to vijnanamaya kosha. The tantric practices act as a catalyst because it is in you, just as curd and butter are in milk, but cannot be seen as separate unless they are released. Matter has energy in it, but when you look at matter, can you see the energy? No, you cannot. Even if you believe that there is energy in matter, still you cannot see it. Then you adopt a method to separate the energy from the matter. That is what nuclear energy is. All energy is inherent in matter. In the same way, vijnanamaya kosha is inherent within you but it is hidden in you like butter is hidden in milk. You have to separate it; you have to release your vijnanamaya kosha.
The fifth organism is anandamaya kosha. It is not possible to translate the word ananda. Some translate it as bliss or happiness, but ananda is when there is no happiness and no unhappiness. In happiness you are jumping, in unhappiness you are dull – sometimes low, sometimes high. So your mind is swinging. In ananda there is no swinging. There is unified experience and that experience does not change.
Death cannot change that experience; birth cannot change it; love and hatred cannot make your experiences swing. When your mind has become steady in experience and does not fluctuate under any condition, that is ananda. So we call it homogenous experience. The experience which you have in your life every day is not homogenous. It is divided and that is why swamis have ananda in their name, to remind them that they must achieve the state of mind where there is no swinging. So, anandamaya kosha means the kosha which comprises homogenous experience.
In many books, anandamaya kosha is translated as the blissful sheath. But I have thought about ananda for many years and have come to the conclusion that there is a state of mind which does not change, despite anything that happens in life. With that state of mind you can live with all the conditions of life. You can live with a good partner or a bad partner, prosperity or poverty, disease or death, in a discotheque, on a beach, a hotel, everywhere, because nothing affects you. You are where you are, firmly rooted in your own self, but at the same time you can interact with everyone. You can even fight, but still not be affected.
The three gunas
You are composed of these five sheaths or koshas, but you are not that. These five koshas belong to the lower existence, not to the range of supreme knowledge. They are controlled by the three gunas: sattwa, rajas and tamas. Guna means quality, faculty or attribute. The three gunas belong to nature. In this context nature does not mean beautiful places, mountains and hills.
In philosophy nature means prakriti, the universal law. There is a universal law which controls all, from biggest to tiniest, and it is inherent in the thing itself. Take a tree, for example. It is controlled by the laws inherent in the tree. In the same way every human being and every animal is controlled by a law which is inherent in it. My controller is inherent in me and that is the law. That is prakriti, and it controls, maintains or manages each and every law by the three gunas.
These three gunas again control the five koshas. The three gunas work in unison. Nothing is controlled by one guna. The body is controlled by tamoguna, but there is also a little bit of rajas and sattwa. In the same way, anandamaya kosha is controlled by sattwa guna, but there is a trace of the other two gunas. The mind is controlled by rajoguna, but there is a trace of the other two gunas. The three gunas control the five koshas in cooperation with each other. They all have a share. In one kosha, one guna may have a major share and in the others a very minor share, but the proportion changes from time to time.
Where can we place yoga here? First of all, the various practices of yoga purify the mechanism of these koshas. Thereby they can change the quantum of the gunas in each kosha. For example, the body is predominantly tamasic, but by the practices of hatha yoga, sattwic food and a good daily program, you can increase sattwa guna in the body. In the same way you can change the quantum of the gunas in each kosha.
When you change the quantum of the gunas in these five koshas through the yoga practices, a balance is created and when balance is created, then greater awareness takes place. These five koshas are separate classifications. You can experience them during your yoga practice. When you meditate, you pierce through or penetrate each and every kosha.
There are many books on the koshas. One is Vivekachudamani, a very famous book by Adi Shankaracharya, the second is Panchadashi, a very famous book in fifteen chapters dealing with terminologies in yoga and vedanta, and the third is Samkhya Sutras. These three are authentic classical texts.
The five koshas, five tattwas, three gunas and various forms of yoga should be studied in conjunction with each other because they are related to everyone. Even animals have koshas, but the nature of evolution is different. Animals have a well developed annamaya kosha and pranamaya kosha, but their manomaya kosha is in a rudimentary state of evolution, while their anandamaya kosha is not at all manifest. In little insects, annamaya kosha is there but pranamaya kosha is not fully developed and manomaya kosha is unmanifest there.
So the five koshas are not the sole property of human beings. Anything in this universe which has a body has five koshas, but as it goes on evolving then the later koshas become more and more prominent. A yoga practitioner has a developed vijnanamaya kosha while one who has achieved the result of yoga has anandamaya kosha fully developed. But beyond these five koshas is the absolute self. The purpose of existence is to experience that cosmic self and in order to understand and experience that cosmic self, you have to first understand these five koshas and then separate them.
Western explanations... ( corrected )
According to the yoga tradition, every one of us has five bodies, each made of increasingly finer grades of energy.
The five progressively subtler bodies that compose our personality are described in a yoga classic called the Taittiriya Upanishad:
“Human beings consist of a material body built from the food they eat. Those who care for this body are nourished by the universe itself. “Inside this is another body made of life energy. It fills the physical body and takes its shape. Those who treat this vital force as divine experience excellent health and longevity because this energy is the source of physical life. “Within the vital force is yet another body, this one made of thought energy. It fills the two denser bodies and has the same shape. Those who understand and control the mental body are no longer afflicted by fear. “Deeper still lies another body comprised of intellect. It permeates the three denser bodies and assumes the same form. Those who establish their awareness here free themselves from unhealthy thoughts and actions, and develop the self-control necessary to achieve their goals. “Hidden inside it is yet a subtler body, composed of pure joy. It pervades the other bodies and shares the same shape. It is experienced as happiness, delight, and bliss.” These five bodies are called koshas, or “sheaths,” in Sanskrit, because each fits in the next like a sword in a scabbard. Only the densest is made of matter as we know it; the other four are energy states invisible to the physical eye, though we can easily sense their presence inside us when we pay close attention. Since the inner bodies are the source of our well-being during life and are the vehicles we travel in after death, India’s ancient yogis developed specific exercises to strengthen and tone each one in turn.
Your Second Body
You’re already familiar with your physical body. It’s called annamaya kosha in yoga, (maya means “made of” and anna means “food” or “physical matter.”) But yoga also makes you aware of a second body, the organizing field that holds your material body together. This is the life energy that governs your biological processes, from breathing to digestion to the circulation of your blood. It’s called chi in Chinese medicine and prana in yoga. The ancient Egyptians called it the ka. The energy body is called the prana-maya kosha in yoga. When it ceases to function your physical body can no longer operate. Your heart and lungs stop working and your cells begin to disintegrate. In Western culture we strongly identify with our material body, yet without prana supporting and directing it, it can’t survive more than a few minutes. Yoga devotes an entire class of practices called pranayama to replenishing the vitality of the pranamaya kosha. Exercises like diaphragmatic breathing, the complete yogic breath, and alternate nostril breathing are specifically designed to enhance the proper functioning of your second sheath. In addition, getting plenty of fresh air and sunlight is essential for maintaining the health of the vital force. Yoga texts explain that the sun is the ultimate source of prana, and it is said that some advanced yogis go for years without eating; instead they simply absorb the prana radiated by the sun. For most of us, however, fresh whole foods are a major source of prana.
Your Third Body
The third sheath or mental body is the apparatus responsible for our sensory and motor activities and our day-to-day awareness when we’re functioning “on automatic.” It processes input from our five senses and responds reflexively. When we move through life passively, reacting to our environment rather than actively shaping it, our awareness is focused here. Many people, and most animals, routinely operate at this level. This body is called manomaya kosha (which means “body made of thought processes”). In the West we associate our routine mental state with the brain, but according to yoga the entire nervous system (including the brain) merely mediates the activity of the manomaya kosha, expressing the commands of this higher energy state through the physical body. You get a clear sense of what the mental body is when you observe a patient in a coma. Their second sheath is still operating so their heart continues to pump and their lungs expand and contract. But the person has no awareness of the external world and no ability to take action because the activity of the mental body has shut down. The pranamaya kohsa operates from the moment of our first breath to our last, but the manomaya kosha shuts down temporarily on a daily basis, regenerating itself during the state of deep sleep. The health of the manomaya kosha is tremendously enhanced through the practice of mantra meditation. This soothes and balances this inner body, and helps release “knots” of energy tied up in mental complexes and obsessive thoughts. Yogis who spend a great deal of time in meditation often have very little need for sleep because their mental vehicles are functioning optimally. The mental body “feeds” on the sense impressions we offer it. Avoid violence and aggressive forms of stimulation. Avoid mental “indigestion and look for a harmonious environment. A daily session of pratyahara, or sensory withdrawal, leading into meditation provides an excellent inner tune-up. Silence, is the path.
Your Fourth Body
Subtler still is the vijnanamaya kosha (vijnana means “the power of judgment or discernment”). It’s often translated as “intellect,” but the real meaning is broader, encompassing all the functions of the higher mind, including conscience and will. The sages considered the development of a healthy vijnanamaya kosha so important that they placed the exercises for it at the very beginning of the yoga system. These are the yamas and niyamas, commitments every yoga student is asked to make: not to harm, lie, steal, overindulge, or desire more than you actually need; instead you are asked to be content, pure, self-disciplined, studious, and devoted.
Jnana yoga also works with this kosha. This is the path of the intellect in which you are advised to study spiritual truths, contemplate them deeply, and finally incorporate them into the very core of your personality. On this path your spiritual understanding becomes the “food” with which you nourish your intellect. As your meditation practice deepens over the months and years, your ability to connect with inner guidance is enhanced. Your yogic lifestyle, contemplation, and meditation lead to clarity of judgment, greater intuitive insight, and increased capability of adjustment to changes as your vijnanamaya kosha grows stronger and more balanced.
Your Fifth Body
In the vast majority of humans, the fifth sheath is totally underdeveloped. This is the anandamaya kosha, the subtlemost body which is experienced as ananda (spiritual bliss). Generally only saints, sages, and genuine mystics have done the inner work necessary to make ananda a living part of their daily experience, and most people are hardly even aware that this level of consciousness exists within themselves.Generally only saints, sages, and genuine mystics have done the inner work necessary to make ananda a living part of their daily experience, and most people are hardly even aware that this level of consciousness exists within themselves. The anandamaya kosha is extremely important in yoga because it’s the final and thinnest veil standing between our ordinary awareness and our higher Self. When conscience is present in ananda, bodies and Koshas shall shine through, radiating light from within which You shall perceive as all-embracing or unconditional love, according to the sense you are using. This is the experience of the anandamaya kosha. In the tantric tradition, spirit is often symbolized as Shiva, the transcendent Lord who is ever immersed in divine consciousness. Matter/energy is called Shakti, the Supreme Goddess whose divine body is this entire universe. It’s said that they love each other with unspeakable intensity. Their supreme love is experienced in the anandamaya kosha, where spirit and matter passionately embrace.
We can awaken our bliss sheath through three practices. The first is seva, selfless service. This opens our heart to our innate unity with other beings. The second is bhakti yoga, devotion to God. This opens our heart to our unity with the all-pervading Divine Being. The third is samadhi, intensely focused meditation, which opens our heart to our own divine being.
Essence of the Taittiriya Upanishad by Swami Sivananda
This Upanishad Belongs to The Krishna-Yajurveda.
1. The great sage Yajnavalkya quarrelled with his preceptor. He was asked by Vaishampayana, his Guru, to return the Veda which he had studied under him. Yajnavalkya vomited the Yajurveda he had learnt. The other Rishis, the pupils of Vaishampayana, assumed the forms of Tittiris (birds, partridges) and swallowed the Veda thus thrown out or vomited. Therefore it came to be known as Taittiriya-Samhita.
2. This Upanishad is divided into sections called vallis, viz., (1) Siksha-valli or the section on instruction. (2) Brahmananda-valli or the section on Brahma-bliss. (3) Bhrigu-valli or the section on Bhrigu.
3. In the first section the preceptor gives clear instructions to the aspirants on character building. He imparts to them rules of right conduct or right living in order to prepare themselves for the attainment of Brahma-Jnana or the knowledge of the Self.
4. The second section deals with bliss of Brahman. The order of creation is described in this Valli.
5. The third section deals with the story of Bhrigu, son of Varuna, who, under instructions from his father, understood Bliss or Brahman, after undergoing the required penance. In this section the description of the five Kosas or sheaths is clearly given.
6. May the sun (Mitra) be good to us. May Varuna be good to us. May the sun (Aryama) be good to us. May Indra and Brihaspati be good to us. May Vishnu of great strides be good to us. Prostrations to Brahman. Prostrations to thee, O Vayu! Thou, indeed, art the visible Brahman. I shall proclaim Thee visible Brahman. I shall call Thee just. I shall call Thee true. May That protect me. May That protect the teacher. May That protect me. May That protect the teacher.
Om Peace, Peace, Peace!
7. Anuvaka means a sub-division of the Vedas, a section or chapter.
8. The utterance of the peace chant propitiates the Devatas. The spiritual path is rendered smooth through their grace. All obstacles are removed. You will not forget what you have learnt. You will possess good health. You will have good meditation.
9. Vayu is Hiranyagarbha or Cosmic Prana.
10. The repetition of ‘Om-Santi' thrice is to remove the three kinds of obstacles, viz. Adhyatmika (from our self), Adhidaivika (from the heavens) and Adhibhautika (from living beings).
11. Mitra is the presiding deity of the activity of the Prana and the day. Varuna is the presiding deity of the activity of Apana and of the night. Aryama (the sun) is the presiding deity of the eye and of the sun. Indra is the presiding deity of strength and of the hands. Brihaspati is the presiding deity of speech and intellect. Vishnu is the presiding deity of the feet.
12. Now comes the final instruction which the students in those days received when they completed their studies under the preceptor. Having taught the Vedas the preceptor exhorts the disciple.
13. Speak the truth. Do your duty (righteousness). Never swerve from the study of the Vedas. Do not cut off the thread of the offspring after giving the preceptor the fee he desires. Never swerve away from truth. Never swerve from duty (righteousness). Never neglect your welfare. Never neglect your prosperity. Never neglect the study and the teachings of the Vedas.
14. Never swerve from your duties to the gods and to men. May the mother be thy god (Matrudevo bhava). May the father be thy god (Pitrudevo bhava). May the preceptor be thy god (Acharyadevo bhava). May the guest be thy god (Atithidevo bhava). Let only those actions that are free from blemish be done, and not others. Only those that are good acts to us should be performed by thee, and not others.
15. You should remove the fatigue of Brahmins who are superior, by serving them with seats, etc.
16. Gift should be given with faith; it should never be given without faith. It should be given in plenty, with modesty, with reverence, with sympathy.
17. Now, if there should arise in thee any doubt as regards any action or conduct, thou shouldst act in those matters as do those Brahmins there, who are thoughtful, religious, not cruel, and devoted to Dharma.
18. Now as regards persons accused of sin, do thou deal with them as do the Brahmins there, who are thoughtful, religious, not cruel, and devoted to Dharma.
19. This is the injunction. This is the teaching. This is the secret of the Vedas. This is the word of command. This should be observed. Thus is this to be meditated upon.
Om. May That protect us both (teacher and pupil). May That cause us both to enjoy the bliss (of Mukti). May we both exert to find out the true meaning of the scriptures. May our learning be brilliant. May we never quarrel with each other!
Om Peace, Peace, Peace!
20. The knower of Brahman attains the Supreme.
21. Brahman is Truth, Knowledge and Infinity. He who knows it as existing hidden in the heart, realises all his desires instantaneously and without succession, as the omniscient Brahman.
22. From this Atman is Akasa (ether) born; from Akasa, air; from air, fire; from fire, water; from water, earth; from earth, the herbs, plants and vegetables; from herbs, etc., food; from food, man. Thus man is made of the essence of food. The physical embodiment has its parts, such as the head, the right and left parts, the trunk, the support, etc.
23. Brahman is your own very Self or Soul. It cannot be an object of knowledge. It is always the witnessing Subject.
24. To know Brahman is to become identical with Absolute-Consciousness through meditation and Nirvikalpa- Samadhi
The Human Being's Five Sheaths
25. All beings that exist on earth are born of food. Then they live by food: then, again, to food (earth) they go in the end. So, verily food is the eldest of all creatures. Therefore it is called a medicament to all. All those who worship food as Brahman obtain all food. From food all beings are born; having been born, they, grow by food. Food is eaten by beings and also it eats them. Therefore, it is called Anna (food). Other than that (soul) made of the essence of food, there is another self within, formed of Prana. By that this is filled. This Pranamaya is exactly of the form of man (Purusha). Its human form is according to the human form of the former. Of that Prana is the head; Vyana the right wing (side); Apana the left wing (side); the Akasa the trunk (body); the earth, the tail, the support.
26. The Annamaya Kosa is permeated by four Kosas, the Pranamaya and the rest. The Pranamaya Kosa is permeated by three Kosas, the Manomaya by two Kosas and the Vijnanamaya by one Kosa.
27. Through Prana the gods live, and also do men and beasts. Prana is, verily, the life of beings. Therefore it is called the universal life or the life of all. Those who worship Prana attain the whole life duration or the full span of life.
28. Of that former (Annamayatma) this (Prana-mayatma) is the soul. Different from the Pranamaya self made of Prana, there is another self made of mind. With that self made of mind, this (the Pranamaya) is filled. This is also the form of man. Its human form is according to that of the former. Of it Yajus is the head. Rik is the right side (wing). Saman is the left side (wing), injunction (Adesha) is the trunk (body). Atharvangiras is the tail, the support.
29. The Manomaya self is the inner self of the Pranamaya. It permeates the Pranamaya Kosa.
30. Whence all speech turn back with the mind, without reaching, he who knows that, the bliss of Brahman, fears not at any time. This mind is the embodied soul of the former. Of the Pranamaya, this one, namely the Manomaya is the self, having the Pranamaya for its body.
31. Different from that made of mind is another inner soul made of knowledge (Vijnana). By that, this is filled. It also has the shape of man. According to the human shape of that, is the human form of this. Faith is its head. Righteousness (Ritam) is the right side or wing. Truth (Satyam) is the left side or wing. Yoga (concentration, meditation) is the trunk (self). Might (Mahas) is the tail, the support.
32. The Manomaya-Kosa is made up of Vrittis or thoughts. It is subtler than the Pranamaya-Kosa. It controls the Pranamaya-Kosa. So it is the inner self of the Pranamaya-Kosa.
33. Knowledge performs the sacrifice as well as Karma. All the gods worship knowledge as Brahman, the eldest. If a man knows knowledge as Brahman, and if he does not swerve from it, he attains all desires, having abandoned his sins in the body.
34. Of that (the former), this one, verily, is the self. Different from this self, made of knowledge (Vijnanamaya) is another self within, formed of bliss. By that this is filled. It also has the shape of man. According to the human shape of that, is the human form of this. Of it love (Priya) is the head. Joy (Moda) is the right side (wing). Delight (Pramoda) is the left side (wing). Bliss (Ananda) is the trunk (self). Brahman is the tail, the support.
35. Priya is love in looking at a pleasant object. Moda is joy, satisfaction after possessing the object. Pramoda is delight, great satisfaction, the same joy intensified that arises from gratified desires.
36. Birth and death are the attributes of the Annamaya-Kosa.
37. Hunger and thirst are the attributes of Pranamaya-Kosa.
38. Moha (delusion) and Soka (grief) are the attributes of the Manomaya Kosa.
39. The Atman is ever pure and unattached. It is absolutely free from the Shad-Urmis or the six waves of the ocean of Samsara, viz. birth, death, hunger, thirst, delusion and grief.
40. The Annamaya-Kosa constitutes the gross physical body. The Pranamaya, the Manomaya and the Vijnanamaya-Kosas constitute the subtle body or astral body (Linga-Sarira). The Anandamaya-Kosa constitutes the causal body (Karana-Sarira).
41. The three bodies operate during the waking state. The subtle body and the causal body function during the dreaming state. During deep sleep it is the thin veil of Anandamaya-Kosa that separates the individual soul from the Supreme Soul or Brahman. The Anandamaya-Kosa operates during deep sleep.
Origin of Creation
42. If one knows Brahman as non-existent he becomes himself non-existent. If he knows Brahman as existent, then they know him to be existent.
43. Therefore arise the following questions of the pupil: Does he, who knows not, after having departed this world, go there? Or does he, who knows after leaving the world, obtain that?
44. He desired: May I be many, may I be born. He performed Tapas. Having performed Tapas he brought forth all thiswhatever there is. Having brought forth, he entered it; having entered it, he became what is manifest and what is not manifest, defined and undefined, the abode and non-abode, knowledge and ignorance, truth and falsehood, and all this whatsoever is existing. Therefore it is called existence.
45. In the beginning, this was verily, non-existent. From that the existent was born. That created itself by itself. Therefore, it is called self-made. This which was self-madethat is the essence. Having obtained this essence, man becomes blessed, who would have lived and breathed had not the bliss in the cavity of heart existed! This Brahman bestows bliss. When one attains oneness with the Brahman who is invisible, incorporeal, undefined, abodeless, then he becomes free from fear. When, however, one makes even the slightest distinction in Brahman, then there is fear for him. That Brahman itself becomes the source of fear for him who makes a difference. and does not reflect.
Gradation of Bliss
46. Through fear of Him, blows the wind. Through fear of Him rises the sun. Through fear of Him again Indra, fire and Death proceed to their respective duties.
47. Suppose there is a youth, a good youth, well-versed in the scriptures, well disciplined, resolute and very strong. Suppose his is all this earth, full of wealth. This is one unit of human bliss. This is the measure of human bliss.
48. A hundredfold of the human bliss is the unit-measure of the bliss of the human Gandharvas and also is the bliss of one versed in the Vedas, who is free from desires.
49. A hundredfold of the bliss of the human Gandharvas is the unit-measure of the bliss of celestial Gandharvas, and also is the bliss of one versed in the Vedas, who is free from desires.
50. A hundredfold of the bliss of celestial Gandharvas is the unit of the bliss of the manes who dwell in the long enduring world, and also is the bliss of one versed in the Vedas, who is free from desires.
51. A hundredfold of the bliss of the manes who dwell in the long-enduring world, is the unit-measure of the bliss of the Devas born in heaven, and also is the bliss of one versed in the Vedas, who is free from desires.
52. A hundredfold of the bliss of the Devas born in heaven is the unit-measure of the bliss of the Devas known as Karma-Devas, those who have become Devas by their sacrificial deeds, and also is the bliss of one versed in the Vedas, who is free from desires.
53. A hundredfold of the bliss of the Devas known as Karma-Devas is the unit-measure of the bliss of the Devas, and also is the bliss of one versed in Vedas, who is free from desires. A hundredfold of the bliss of the Devas is the unit-measure of the bliss of Indra, and also the bliss of one versed in the Vedas, who is free from desires.
54. A hundredfold of the bliss of Indra is the unit-measure of the bliss of Brihaspati, and also is the bliss of one versed in Vedas, who is free from desires.
55. A hundredfold of the bliss of Brihaspati is the unit-measure of the bliss of Prajapati, and also is the bliss of one versed in Vedas, who is free from desires.
56. A hundredfold of the bliss of Prajapati is the unit-measure of the bliss of Brahman, and also is the bliss of one versed in Vedas, who is free from desires.
57. He who is in man (Purusha), and he who is in the sun, are one. He who knows this, having departed from this world, first attains this Atman made of food, next attains this Atman made of Prana, next attains this Atman made of mind, next attains this Atman made of Buddhi, and lastly attains the Atman made of Bliss.
58. He who knows the Bliss of Brahman, from which all words return without reaching it, together with the mind, is not afraid of anything.
59. Such thoughts as these certainly never distress him; Why have I not done what is good? Why have I committed sin?
60. He who knows thus regards both these as the Atman. Verily, both these he regards as the Atman, who knows this.
61. A sage beholds his own Self everywhere. He feels that everything that exists is nothing but his own Self. Therefore, he feels no fear from anything.
62. A knower of Brahman regards that good and bad are but different manifestations of the same Atman. Virtue and vice do not afflict him. They cannot generate subsequent births. He realises that he is non-doer and non-enjoyer. He knows that the Atman is actionless, and that the mind alone is the doer of all actions. He has neither wants, nor egoism, nor desires.
63. Bhrigu, the son of Varuna, approached his father, and said: O revered Sir, teach me Brahman.
64. He (Varuna) said this to him (Bhrigu): Food, Prana, the eyes, the ears, the mind and the speech are Brahman.
65. To him he further said: That from which these beings are born; that by which, being born, these beings live; that which, when departing, they enter intothat seek thou to know that is Brahman.
66. He (Bhrigu) performed penance.
67. Having performed penance, he learnt that food is Brahman; because it is from food that all these beings are born; by food, when born, do they live; and, having departed into food, again, they enter.
68. Having known that, he again approached his father Varuna and said; O revered Sir, teach me Brahman.
69. He (Varuna) told him; By penance (Tapas) seek thou to know Brahman. Penance is Brahman.
70. He performed penance.
71. Having performed penance, (Bhrigu) understood that Prana is Brahman; because it is from Prana that all these living beings are born; having been born, they live by Prana; and having departed, into Prana, again, they enter.
72. Having known that, he again approached his father Varuna to know further and said; O revered Sir, teach me Brahman.
73. He (Varuna) told him; By penance (Tapas) seek thou to know Brahman. Penance is Brahman.
74. Bhrigu performed penance, and having performed penance, he came to the conclusion after analysis and deliberation, that Prana (life) is Brahman. But he was not at all satisfied with this conclusion. He thought that this Prana could not be Brahman, because it is non-intelligent, it is an effect, it has a cause, it has a beginning and an end. So he again approached his father to get further light. And his father, again, asked him to know it by penance.
75. Then Bhrigu understood by penance that the mind is Brahman, because it is from mind that all these living beings are born; having been born, they live by the mind; and having departed, into the mind, again, they enter.
76. Having known that, he again approached his father Varuna to know further and said; O revered Sir, teach me Brahman.
77. He (Varuna) told him; By penance seek thou to know Brahman. Penance is Brahman.
78. He performed penance,.
79. Bhrigu thought that mind is only an organ or instrument of cognition, that it has no self-luminosity, has a beginning and end, and therefore it could not be Brahman, the uncaused. So he approached again his father for further enlightenment. Having been asked to do penance, he does it, again.
80. Then he understood that knowledge is Brahman; because it is by knowledge that all these living beings are born; having been born, by knowledge they live; and, having departed, into knowledge, again, they enter.
81. Having known that, he approached his father Varuna to know it further and said; O revered Sir, teach me Brahman.
82. He (Varuna) told him: By penance seek thou to know Brahman. Penance is Brahman.
83. He performed penance, again.
84. Bhrigu found out that his finding could not give him entire satisfaction and that knowledge could not be Brahman. He thought that knowledge is the agent of all the actions of the Jiva and also the enjoyer of the fruits of actions. So he again went to his father for getting further light. And the advice he received was, again, to perform penance.
85. He, then, understood by penance that bliss is Brahman; because from bliss all beings are born; having been born, by bliss they live; and, having departed, into bliss, again, they enter.
86. This is the knowledge learnt by Bhrigu and taught by Varuna. This is established in the supreme ether (heart). He who knows thus becomes one with Brahman. He becomes the possessor of food, and the eater of food. He becomes great in progeny, in cattle and in spiritual lustre. He becomes great in fame.
Injunctions Regarding Food
87. Do not speak ill of food. That shall be your vow.
88. Prana (life) is food. The body is the eater of food. The body is fixed in Prana. Prana is fixed in the body. So thus food is fixed in food. He who knows that food is fixed in food becomes well established. He becomes the possessor of food, and the eater of food. He becomes great in progeny, in cattle and in spiritual lustre. He becomes great in fame.
89. Do not despise food. That is the vow. Water is food. Fire is the food-eater. Fire is fixed in water. Water is fixed in fire. So food is fixed in food. He who knows that food is fixed in food is well established. He becomes rich in food, and becomes eater of food. He becomes great in progeny, in cattle and in spiritual lustre. He becomes great in fame.
90. Accumulate plenty of food (for distribution to the poor and the travellers). That is the vow. The earth is the food. Akasa (ether) is the eater of food. In the earth is fixed Akasa. In Akasa is fixed the earth. So food is fixed in food. He who knows that food thus rests in food is well established. He becomes rich in food, and becomes eater of food. He becomes great in progeny, in cattle and in spiritual lustre. He becomes great in fame.
91. The earth abides in the ether which is above and below it. The earth is enveloped by ether on all sides. So the earth is food and the ether is the food-eater. The ether is the basis or the container.
92. Without food no meditation is possible. Food should be meditated upon as God or Brahman. It should be adored and glorified.
93. Do not turn away anybody who seeks shelter. This is the vow. Therefore let one acquire much food by any means whatsoever. They say: food is ready. If food is prepared in the best manner, food is given to him (the guest) also in the best manner. If food is prepared in the medium manner, food is given to him also in the medium manner. If food is prepared in the lowest manner, food is also given to him in the lowest manner.
94. He who knows thus obtains similar results.
Meditation on Brahman
95. Brahman resides in speech as preserver, as acquirer and preserver in Prana and Apana, as action in the hands, as motion in the feet, as discharge in the anus. Thus is the meditation of Brahman in respect of man.
96. Now comes the contemplation in reference to the heavens as satisfaction in the rain, as power in the lightning, as fame in cattle, as light in the stars, as offspring, immortality and joy in the generative organ, as all in the Akasa.
97. Let him meditate upon that (Brahman) as support. He becomes well-supported. He will possess all means of living such as food and clothing. Let him meditate upon that as the great. He becomes great. Let him meditate upon that as mind. He becomes thoughtful. Let him meditate upon that as adoration. To him all desires pay homage. Let him meditate upon that as the supreme. He becomes the presence of supremacy. Let him contemplate upon that as the destructive aspect. All those enemies who hate him and the rivals whom he does not like die around him.
98. He who is in man and he who is in the sun both are the same. He who knows thus, departing from this world, and attaining the Annamaya self, then attaining the Pranamaya self, then attaining the Manomaya self, then attaining the Vijnanamaya self, then attaining the Anandamaya self, eating what he likes and assuming forms according to his wishes, travels through the world, and sits singing the following Sama song:
99. O wonderful! I am the food, I am the food, I am the food; I am the eater of food, I am the eater of food, I am the eater of food. I am the author of fame, I am the author of fame. I am the author of fame. I am the first born of the True. Prior to the gods, I am the centre of all immortality. Whoever gives me, he surely does save. I, the food, eats him who eats food. I have conquered all this world. I am luminous like the sun. He who knows thus attains the aforesaid results. This is the Upanishad.
100. This is the Jivanmukta's song of unity with all. The sage expresses his experience of oneness.
Translated by Swami Gambhirananda
Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).
Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
I-i-1: May Mitra be blissful to us. May Varuna be blissful to us. May Aryaman be blissful to us. May Indra and Brihaspati be blissful to us. May Vishnu, of long strides, be blissful to us. Salutation to Brahman. Salutation to you, O Vayu. You, indeed, are the immediate Brahman. You alone I shall call the direct Brahman. I shall call you righteousness. I shall call you truth. May He protect me. May He protect the teacher. May He protect me. May He protect the teacher. Om, peace, peace, peace !
I-ii-1: We shall speak of the science of pronunciation. (The things to be learnt are) the alphabet, accent, measure, emphasis, uniformity, juxtaposition. Thus has been spoken the chapter on pronunciation.
I-iii-1: May we both attain fame together. May spiritual pre-eminence be vouchsafed to both of us together. Now therefore, we shall state the meditation on juxtaposition through five categories – relating to the worlds, to the shining things, to knowledge, to progeny, and to the body. These, they call the great juxtapositions. Now then, as regards the meditation on the worlds. The earth is the first letter. Heaven is the last letter. The sky is the meeting-place.
I-iii-2-4: Vayu is the link. This is the meditation with regard to the worlds. Then follows the meditation with regard to the shining things. Fire is the first letter. The sun is the last letter. Water is the rallying point. Lightning is the link. This is the meditation with regard to the shining things. Then follows the meditation with regard to knowledge. The teacher is the first letter. The student is the last letter. Knowledge is the meeting-place. Instruction is the link. This is the meditation with regard to knowledge. Then follows the meditation with regard to progeny. The mother is the first letter. The father is the last letter. The progeny is the focal point. Generation is the link. This is the meditation with regard to progeny. Then follows the meditation with regard to the (individual) body. The lower jaw is the first letter. The upper jaw is the last letter. Speech is the meeting-place. The tongue is the link. This is the meditation with regard to the (individual) body. These are the great juxtapositions. Anyone who meditates on these great juxtapositions, as they are explained, becomes conjoined with progeny, animals, the splendour of holiness, edible food, and the heavenly world.
I-iv-1-2: The Om that is the most exalted in the Vedas, that pervades all worlds, and that emerged from the immortal Vedas as their quintessence, may he (Om that is Indra), the supreme Lord, gratify me with intelligence. O Lord, may I be the receptacle of immortality. May my body be fit; may my tongue be surpassingly sweet; may I hear much through the ears. You are the sheath of Brahman: you are covered by (worldly) wisdom. Protect what I have heard. Then vouchsafe to me who am her (i.e. Prosperity’s) own, that Prosperity which brings, increases, and accomplishes quickly for me clothes, cattle, food, and drink for ever, and which is associated with furry and other animals. Svaha. May the Brahmacharins (i.e. students) come to me from all sides. Svaha. May the Brahmacharins come to me in various ways. Svaha. May the Brahmacharins come to me in the proper way. Svaha. May the Brahmacharins have physical self-control. Svaha. May the Brahmacharins have mental self-control. Svaha.
I-iv-3: May I become famous among people. Svaha. May I become praiseworthy among the wealthy. Svaha. O adorable One, may I enter into you, such as you are. Svaha. O venerable One, you, such as you are, enter into me. Svaha. O adorable One, who are greatly diversified, may I purify my sins in you. Svaha. As water flows down a slope, as months roll into a year, similarly O Lord, may the students come to me from all quarters. Svaha. You are like a resting house, so you become revealed to me, you reach me through and through.
I-v-1-2: Bhuh, Bhuvah, Suvah – these three, indeed, are the Vyahritis. Of them Mahacamasya knew a fourth one – Maha by name. It is Brahman; it is the Self. The other gods are the limbs. Bhuh, indeed, is this world. Bhuvah is the intermediate space. Suvah is the other world. Maha is the sun; through the sun, indeed, do all the worlds flourish. Bhuh, indeed is the fire. Bhuvah is the air. Suvah is the sun. Maha is the moon; through the moon, indeed, all the luminaries flourish. Bhuh, indeed, is the Rig-Veda. Bhuvah is the Sama-Veda. Suvah is the Yajur-Veda.
I-v-3: Maha is Brahman (i.e. Om), for by Brahman (Om), indeed, are all the Vedas nourished. Bhuh, indeed, is Prana; Bhuvah is Apana; Suvah is Vyana; Maha is food; for by food, indeed, are all the vital forces nourished. These, then, that are four, are (each) fourfold. The Vyahritis are divided into four groups of four (each). He who knows these knows Brahman. All the gods carry presents to him.
I-vi-1-2: In the space that there is in the heart, is this Person who is realisable through knowledge, and who is immortal and effulgent. This thing that hangs down between the palates like a teat, through it runs the path of Brahman; and reaching where the hairs part, it passes out by separating the skulls. (Passing out through that path, a man) becomes established in Fire as the Vyahriti Bhuh; he becomes established in Air as the Vyahriti Bhuvah; in the sun as the Vyahriti Suvah; in Brahman as the Vyahriti Mahah. He himself gets independent sovereignty; he attains the lord of the mind; he becomes the ruler of speech, the ruler of eyes, the ruler of ears, the ruler of knowledge. Over and above all these he becomes Brahman which is embodied in Akasa, which is identified with the gross and the subtle and has truth as Its real nature, which reveals in life, under whose possession the mind is a source of bliss, which is enriched with peace and is immortal. Thus, O Pracinayogya, you worship.
I-vii-1: The earth, sky, heaven, the primary quarters, and the intermediate quarters; fire, air, the sun, the moon, and the stars; water, herbs, trees, sky, and Virat – these relate to natural factors. Then follow the individual ones: Prana, Vyana, Apana, Udana and Samana; the eye, the ear, the mind, speech and sense of touch; skin, flesh, muscles, bones and marrow. Having imagined these thus, the seer said, “All this is constituted by five factors; one fills up the (outer) fivefold ones by the (individual) fivefold ones.
I-viii-1: Om is Brahman. Om is all this. Om is well known as a word of imitation (i.e. concurrence). Moreover, they make them recite (to the gods) with the words, “Om, recite (to the gods)”. They commence singing Samas with Om. Uttering the words “Om som” they recite the Shastras. The (priest) Brahma approves with the word Om. One permits the performance of the Agnihotra sacrifice with the word Om. A Brahmana, when about to recite the Vedas utters Om under the idea, I shall attain Brahman”. He does verily attain Brahman.
I-ix-1: Righteousness and learning and teaching (are to be practised). Truth and learning and teaching (are to be practised). Austerity and learning and teaching (are to be resorted to). Control of the outer senses and learning and teaching (are to be practised). Control of the inner organs and learning and teaching (are to be resorted to). The fires (are to be lighted up), and learning and teaching (are to be followed). The Agnihotra (is to be performed), and learning and teaching (are to be carried on). Guests (are to be entertained), and learning and teaching (are to be practised). Social good conduct (is to be adhered to), and learning and teaching (are to be practised). Children (are to be begotten), and learning and teaching (are to carried on). Procreation and learning and teaching (are to carried on). A grandson (is to be raised), and learning and teaching (are to be practised). Truth (is the thing) – this is what Satyavacha, of the line of Rathitara, thinks. Austerity (is the thing) – this is what Taponitya, son of Purusisti, thinks. Learning and teaching alone (are the things) – this is what Naka, son of Mudgala, thinks. For that indeed is the austerity; for that indeed is the austerity.
I-x-I: I am the invigorator of the tree (of the world). My fame is high like the ridge of a mountain. My source is the pure (Brahman). I am like that pure reality (of the Self) that is in the sun. I am the effulgent wealth. I am possessed of a fine intellect, and am immortal and undecaying. Thus was the statement of Trisanku after the attainment of realisation.
I-xi-1: Having taught the Vedas, the preceptor imparts this post-instruction to the students: “Speak the truth. Practise righteousness. Make no mistake about study. Having offered the desirable wealth to the teacher, do not cut off the line of progeny. There should be no inadvertence about truth. There should be no deviation from righteous activity. There should be no error about protection of yourself. Do not neglect propitious activities. Do not be careless about learning and teaching.
I-xi-2-4: There should be no error in the duties towards the gods and manes. Let your mother be a goddess unto you. Let your father be a god unto you. Let your teacher be a god unto you. Let your guest be a god unto you. The works that are not blameworthy are to be resorted to, but not the others. These actions of ours that are commendable are to be followed by you, but not the others. You should, by offering seats, remove the fatigue of those Brahmanas who are more praiseworthy among us. The offering should be with honour; the offering should not be with dishonour. The offering should be in plenty. The offering should be with modesty. The offering should be with awe. The offering should be with sympathy. Then, should you have any doubt with regard to duties or customs, you should behave in those matters just as Brahmanas do, who may happen to be there and who are able deliberators, who are adepts in those duties and customs, who are not directed by others, who are not cruel, and who are desirous of merit. Then, as for the accused people, you should behave with regard to them just as the Brahmanas do, who may happen to be there and who are able deliberators, who are adepts in those duties and customs, who are not directed by others, who are not cruel, who are desirous of merit. This is the injunction. This is the instruction. This is the secret of the Vedas. This is divine behest. This is how the meditation is to be done. This is how this must be meditated on.
I-xii-1: May Mitra be blissful to us. May Varuna be blissful to us. May Aryaman be blissful to us. May Indra and Brihaspati be blissful to us. May Vishnu, of long strides, be blissful to us. Salutation to Brahman. Salutation to you, O Vayu. You, indeed, are the immediate Brahman. You alone I shall call the direct Brahman. I shall call you righteousness. I shall call you truth. May He protect me. May He protect the teacher. May He protect me. May He protect the teacher. Om, peace, peace, peace !
II-i: May He protect us both together. May He nourish us both together. May we both acquire strength together. Let our study be brilliant. May we not cavil at each other.
Om ! Peace ! Peace ! Peace !
II-i-1: The knower of Brahman attains the highest. Here is a verse uttering that very fact: “Brahman is truth, knowledge, and infinite. He who knows that Brahman as existing in the intellect, lodged in the supreme space in the heart, enjoys, as identified with the all- knowing Brahman, all desirable things simultaneously.
From that Brahman, which is the Self, was produced space. From space emerged air. From air was born fire. From fire was created water. From water sprang up earth. From earth were born the herbs. From the herbs was produced food. From food was born man. That man, such as he is, is a product of the essence of food. Of him this indeed, is the head, this is the southern side; this is the northern side; this is the Self; this is the stabilising tail.
Here is a verse pertaining to that very fact:
II-ii-1: All beings that rest on the earth are born verily from food. Besides, they live on food, and at the end, they get merged in food. Food was verily born before all creatures; therefore it is called the medicine for all, those who worship food as Brahman acquire all the food. Food was verily born before all creatures; therefore it is called the medicine for all. Creatures are born of food; being born, they grow by food. Since it is eaten and it eats the creatures, it is called food.
As compared with this self made of the essence of food, as said before, there is another inner self which is made of air. By that is this one filled. This Self is also of the human form. Its human form takes after the human form of that (earlier one). Of this, Prana is the head, Vyana is the southern side, Apana is the northern side, space is the self, the earth is the tail that stabilises. Pertaining to that is this (following) verse:
II-iii-1: The senses act by following the vital force in the mouth; all human beings and animals that are there act similarly; since on the vital force depends the life of all creatures, therefore it is called the life of all; those who worship the vital force as Brahman, attain the full span of life; since on the vital force depends the life of all, it is called the life of all.
Of the preceding (physical) one, this one, indeed, is the embodied self. As compared with this vital body, there is another internal self constituted by mind. By that one is this one filled up. That self constituted by mind is also of a human shape. The human shape of the mental body takes after the human shape of the vital body. Of the mental body, the Yajur-mantras are the head. The Rig- mantras are the right side, the Sama-mantras are the left side, the Brahmana portion is the self (trunk), the mantras seen by Atharvangiras are the stabilising tail. Pertaining to this there is a verse:
II-iv-1: One is not subjected to fear at any time if one knows the Bliss that is Brahman failing to reach which (Brahman, as conditioned by the mind), words, along with the mind, turn back.
Of that preceding (vital) one, this (mental one is verily the embodied self. As compared with this mental body, there is another internal self constituted by valid knowledge. By that one is this one filled up. This one as aforesaid, has verily a human shape. It is humanly shaped in accordance with the human shape of the earlier one. Of him faith is verily the head; righteousness is the right side; truth is the left side; concentration is the self (trunk); (the principle, called) Mahat, is the stabilising tail. Pertaining to this, here is a verse:
II-v-1: Knowledge actualises a sacrifice, and it executes the duties as well. All the gods meditate on the first-born Brahman, conditioned by knowledge. If one knows the knowledge-Brahman, and if one does not err about it, one abandons all sins in the body and fully enjoys all enjoyable things.
Of that preceding (mental) one this (cognitive one) is verily the embodied self. As compared with this cognitive body, there is another internal self constituted by bliss. By that one is this one filled up. This one, as aforesaid, has verily a human shape. It is humanly shaped in accordance with the human shape of the earlier one. Of him joy is verily the head, enjoyment is the right side, hilarity is the left side; bliss is the self (trunk). Brahman is the tail that stabilises. Apropos of this here is a verse:
II-vi-1: If anyone knows Brahman as non-existing, he himself becomes non-existent. If anyone knows that Brahman does exist, then they consider him as existing by virtue of that (knowledge).
Of that preceding (blissful) one, this one is the embodied self. Hence hereafter follow these questions: After departing (from here) does any ignorant man go to the other world (or does he not) ? Alternatively, does any man of knowledge, after departing (from here) reach the other world (or does he not) ?
He (the Self) wished, “Let me be many, let me be born. He undertook a deliberation. Having deliberated, he created all this that exists. That (Brahman), having created (that), entered into that very thing. And having entered there, It became the formed and the formless, the defined and the undefined, the sustaining and the non-sustaining, the sentient and the insentient, the true and the untrue. Truth became all this that there is. They call that Brahman Truth. Pertaining to this, there occurs this verse:
II-vii-1: In the beginning all this was but the Unmanifested (Brahman). From that emerged the manifested. That Brahman created Itself by Itself. Therefore It is called the self-creator.
That which is known as the self-creator is verily the source of joy; for one becomes happy by coming in contact with that source of joy. Who, indeed, will inhale, and who will exhale, if this Bliss be not there in the supreme space (within the heart). This one, indeed, enlivens (people). For whenever an aspirant gets fearlessly established in this un-perceivable, bodiless, inexpressible, and un-supporting Brahman, he reaches the state of fearlessness. For, whenever the aspirant creates the slightest difference in It, he is smitten with fear. Nevertheless, that very Brahman is a terror to the (so-called) learned man who lacks the unitive outlook.
Illustrative of this is this verse here:
II-viii-1-4: Out of His fear the Wind blows. Out of fear the Sun rises. Out of His fear runs Fire, as also Indra, and Death, the fifth.
This, then, is an evaluation of that Bliss:
Suppose there is a young man – in the prime of life, good, learned, most expeditious, most strongly built, and most energetic. Suppose there lies this earth for him filled with wealth. This will be one unit of human joy. If this human joy be multiplied a hundred times, it is one joy of the man-Gandharvas, and so also of a follower of the Vedas unaffected by desires. If this joy of the man-Gandharvas be multiplied a hundred times, it is one joy of the divine-Gandharvas, and so also of a follower of the Vedas unaffected by desires. If the joy of the divine-Gandharvas be increased a hundredfold, it is one joy of the manes whose world is everlasting, and so also of a follower of the Vedas unaffected by desires. If the joy of the manes that dwell in the everlasting world be increased a hundredfold, it is one joy of those that are born as gods in heaven, and so also of a follower of the Vedas untouched by desires. If the joy of those that are born as gods in heaven be multiplied a hundredfold, it is one joy of the gods called the Karma-Devas, who reach the gods through Vedic rites, and so also of a follower of the Vedas unaffected by desires. If the joy of the gods, called the Karma-Devas, be multiplied a hundredfold, it is one joy of the gods, and so also of a follower of the Vedas untarnished by desires. If the joy of the gods be increased a hundred times, it is one joy of Indra, and so also of a follower of the Vedas unaffected by desires. If the joy of Indra be multiplied a hundredfold, it is one joy of Brihaspati and so also of a follower of the Vedas unaffected by desires. If the joy of Brihaspati be increased a hundred times, it is one joy of Virat, and so also of a follower of the Vedas untarnished by desires. If the joy of Virat be multiplied a hundred times, it is one joy of Hiranyagarbha, and so also of a follower of the Vedas unsullied by desires.
II-viii-5: He that is here in the human person, and He that is there in the sun, are one. He who knows thus attains, after desisting from this world, this self made of food, attains this self made of vital force, attains this self made of mind, attains this self made of intelligence, attains this self made of bliss.
Expressive of this there occurs this verse:
II-ix-1: The enlightened man is not afraid of anything after realising that Bliss of Brahman, failing to reach which, words turn back along with the mind.
Him, indeed, this remorse does not afflict: “Why did I not perform good deeds, and why did I perform bad deeds ? He who is thus enlightened strengthens the Self with which these two are identical; for it is he, indeed, who knows thus, that can strengthen the Self which these two really are. This is the secret teaching.
III-i-1: Bhrigu, the well-known son of Varuna, approached his father Varuna with the (formal) request, “O, revered sir, teach me Brahman”. To him he (Varuna) said this: “Food, vital force, eye, ear, mind, speech – (these are the aids to knowledge of Brahman)”. To him he (Varuna) said: “Crave to know that from which all these beings take birth, that by which they live after being born, that towards which they move and into which they merge. That is Brahman”. He practised concentration. He, having practised concentration,
III-ii-1: He realised food (i.e. Virat, the gross Cosmic person) as Brahman. For it is verily from food that all these beings take birth, on food they subsist after being born and they move towards and merge into food. Having realised that, he again approached his father Varuna with the (formal) request. “O, revered sir, teach me Brahman”. To him he (Varuna) said: “Crave to know Brahman through concentration; concentration is Brahman”. He practised concentration. He, having practised concentration,
III-iii-1: He knew the vital force as Brahman; for from the vital force, indeed, spring all these beings; having come into being, they live through the vital force; they move towards and enter into the vital force, Having known thus, he again approached his father Varuna with the (formal) request. “O, revered sir, teach me Brahman”. To him he (Varuna) said: “Crave to know Brahman through concentration; concentration is Brahman”. He practised concentration. Having practised concentration,
III-iv-1: He knew mind as Brahman; for from mind, indeed, spring all these beings; having been born, they are sustained by mind; and they move towards and merge into mind. Having known that, he again approached his father Varuna with the (formal) request. “O, revered sir, teach me Brahman”. To him he (Varuna) said: “Crave to know Brahman through concentration; concentration is Brahman”. He practised concentration. Having practised concentration,
III-v-1: He knew knowledge as Brahman; for from knowledge, indeed, spring all these beings; having been born, they are sustained by knowledge; they move towards and merge in knowledge. Having known that, he again approached his father Varuna with the (formal) request. “O, revered sir, teach me Brahman”. To him he (Varuna) said: “Crave to know Brahman through concentration; concentration is Brahman”. He practised concentration. Having practised concentration,
III-vi-1: He knew Bliss as Brahman; for from Bliss, indeed, all these beings originate; Having been born, they are sustained by Bliss; they move towards and merge in Bliss. This knowledge realised by Bhrigu and imparted by Varuna (starts from the food-self and) terminates in the supreme (Bliss), established in the cavity of the heart. He who knows thus becomes firmly established; he becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food; and he becomes great in progeny, cattle and the lustre of holiness, and great in glory.
III-vii-1: His vow is that, he should not deprecate food. The vital force is verily the food, and the body is the eater; for the vital force is lodged in the body. (Again, the body is the food and the vital force is the eater, for) the body is fixed on the vital force. Thus (the body and vital force are both foods; and) one food is lodged in another. He who knows thus that one food is lodged in another, gets firmly established. He becomes a possessor and an eater of food. He becomes great in progeny, cattle, and the lustre of holiness and great in glory.
III-viii-1: His vow is that he should not discard food. Water, indeed, is food; fire is the eater; for water is established on fire. (Fire is food and water is the eater, for) fire resides in water. Thus one food is lodged in another food. He who knows thus that one food is lodged in another, gets firmly established. He becomes a possessor and an eater of food. He becomes great in progeny, cattle, and the lustre of holiness and great in glory.
III-ix-1: His vow is that he should make food plentiful. Earth is food; space is eater; for earth is placed in space. (Space is food; and earth is eater, for) space is placed on earth. Thus one food is lodged in another food. He who knows thus that one food is lodged in another, gets firmly established. He becomes a possessor and an eater of food. He becomes great in progeny, cattle, and the lustre of holiness and great in glory.
III-x-1-2: His vow is that he should not refuse anyone come for shelter. Therefore one should collect plenty of food by whatsoever means he may. (And one should collect food for the further reason that) they say, “Food is ready for him”. Because he offers cooked food in his early age with honour, food falls to his share in the early age with honour. Because he offers food in his middle age with medium courtesy, food falls to his share in his middle age with medium honour. Because he offers food in his old age with scant esteem, food falls to his share in old age with scant consideration. To him who knows thus (comes the result as described).
(Brahman is to be meditated on) as preservation in speech; as acquisition and preservation in exhaling and inhaling; as action in the hands; as movement in the feet; discharge in the anus. There are meditations on the human plane.
Then follow the divine ones. (Brahman is to be meditated on) as contentment in rain; as energy in lightning.
III-x-3-4: Brahman is to be worshipped as fame in beasts; as light in the stars; as procreation, immortality, and joy in the generative organ; as everything in space. One should meditate on that Brahman as the support; thereby one becomes supported. One should meditate on that Brahman as great; thereby one becomes great. One should meditate on It as thinking; thereby one becomes able to think. One should meditate on It as bowing down; thereby the enjoyable things bow down to one. One should meditate on It as the most exalted; Thereby one becomes exalted. One should meditate on It as Brahman’s medium of destruction; thereby the adversaries that envy such a one die, and so do the enemies whom this one dislikes.
This being that is in the human personality, and the being that is there in the sun are one.
III-x-5-6: He who knows thus, attains, after desisting from this world, this self made of food. After attaining this self made of food then, attaining this self made of vital force, then attaining this self made of mind, then attaining this self made of intelligence, then attaining this self made of bliss, and roaming over these worlds with command over food at will and command over all forms at will, he continues singing this Sama song: “Halloo ! Halloo ! Halloo ! I am the food, I am the food, I am the food; I am the eater, I am the eater, I am the eater; I am the unifier, I am the unifier, I am the unifier; I am (Hiranyagarbha) the first born of this world consisting of the formed and the formless, I (as Virat) am earlier than the gods. I am the navel of immortality. He who offers me thus (as food), protect me just as I am. I, food as I am, eat him up who eats food without offering. I defeat (i.e. engulf) the entire universe. Our effulgence is like that of the sun. This is the Upanishad.
Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).
Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Taittiriyopanishad, included in the Krishna-Yajur-Veda.
Going deeper.... and deeper.... you may read some
Text and translation by Jayaram V
The Taittiriya Upanishad belongs to the Taittiriya school of the Yajurveda and hence the name. It is divided into three chapters and 32 sections, of which the first chapter, Sikhshavalli, containing 13 sections deals with siksha or the study of phonetics or pronunciation, which is an important branch of the Vedic studies. The second chapter, Brahmandavalli is divided into nine sections. It deals with various aspects of Brahmand, the Universal Egg or manifest Brahman, such as the course of evolution, matter and life, life and mind, Brahman as the source of creation and so on. The third chapter is named Bhriguvalli. It is divided into 10 sections which deal with an enquiry of Brahman by sage Bhrigu, in a conversation with his father, Varuna. The following is a complete, original translation of the Taittiriya Upanishad by Jayaram V with notes and Sanskrit text.
Chapter 1 - Siksa Valli
1. aum sam no mitrah sam varunah; sam no bhavaty aryama; sam na indro brihaspatih; sam no visnururukramah; namo brahmane; namaste vayo; tvam eva pratyaksam brahmasi; tvam eva pratyaksam brahma vadisyami; ritam vadisyami; satyam vadisyami; tanmamavatu; tadvaktaramavatu; avatu mam; avatu vaktaram; aum santih santih santih.
1. May Mitra be favorable to us. May Varuna be favorable. May Aryaman be favorable to us. May Indra and Brihaspati be favorable to us. May Vishnu, of wide strides, be favorable to us. Salutation to Brahman. Salutations O Vayu. You, verily, are the visible Brahman. You alone I declare as the visible Brahman. I declare (you) as the controller. I declare (you) as the truth. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. Aum. Peace. Peace. Peace.
Notes: Sam means calm, peaceful, kind, favorably disposed, or satisfied. The Vedic sacrifices are meant to propitiate the gods with the offerings of food which they require, and make them peaceful, calm and favorably inclined towards the worship-pers so that having become gratified with the offerings they receive, they shower their blessings upon them and help them achieve their desired goals. Ritam (rtam) means order and regularity found in creation. It refers to the smooth and orderly progression of events commonly found in Nature such as the passing of time or movements of days and nights, seasons, planets, and the universal laws of Nature. Vayu, as the mover of the mid-region, is invoked in this verse as the controller of that orderly flow of events. He is also invoked as Brahman because he is invisible, expan-sive, carrier of things such as sound and speech and the source of breath (prana).
The Study of Pronunciation
1. aum siksam vyakhyasyamah: varnah svarah, matra balam, sama santanah, ityuktah siksadhyayah.
1. Aum, we shall now explain the subject of pronunciation. The letters, tone, emphasis, articulation, and combination. Thus, is explained as the study of pronunciation.
Notes: The study of these has a lot of significance in Vedic education, because the success of a priest who participates in the Vedic ceremonies depends upon his ability to pronounce the words in the chants correctly, for which he needs to know how to articulate the words, where to stress them, where to pause and how to use the cor-rect pitch to create the right vibrations and produce the right combination of sounds and conditions for the divinities to descend from the heaven and accept the offer-ings.
The Great Combinations
1. saha nau yasah, saha nau brahmavarcasam atha tat samhitaya upanisadam vyakhyasyamah, pancasv adhikara-nesu, adhilokam, adhijyautisam, adhividyam, adhiprajam, adhyatmam, ta mahasam hita ityacaksate.athadhilokam prit-hivi purvarupam, dyauruttararupam; akasah sandhih, vayuh sandhanam, ityadhilokam.
1. May fame come to us both. May the radiance of Brahman come to us both. Now, we shall explain the secret knowledge of the combinations under five headings: with reference to the world, the shining objects, knowledge, progeny and the body. They are the great combinations, they say. Now, with regard to worlds. The earth is the prior form. The heaven is the later form. The space is their meeting place, the air is the connector. This is with regard to the worlds.
Notes: The teacher wished for the success of everyone in the group. He did so be-cause Vedic society valued correct pronunciation of the hymns chanted during the sacrifices. The reputation of a teacher depended very much upon the success of his students. Since this was a class about pronunciation, the teacher rightly prayed for the success of both. This section is about samhitas or combinations the connection that exists between the individual objects and what connects them.
2. athadhijautisam, agnih purvarupam, aditya uttararupam, apah sandhih, vaidyutah sandhanam, ityadhijyautisam.
3. Now, with regard to the shining objects. Fire is the prior form, the sun is the later form, the water is their meeting place, lightning is their connector. This is with regard to the heavenly lights.
3. athadhividyam, acaryah purvarupam, antevasy uttararupam, vidya sandhih, pravacanam sandhanam, ityadhividyam.
3. Now with regard to knowledge. The teacher is the prior form, the student is the later form, knowledge is their meeting place, the teaching is the connector. This is with regard to knowledge.
4. athadhiprajam, mata purvarupam, pitottararupam, praja sandhih, prajananam sandhanam, ity adhiprajam.
4. Now, with regard to progeny. The mother is the prior form, the fa-ther the later form, the progeny is their meeting place. The act of procreation is the connector This is with regard to progeny.
5. athadhyatmam, adhara hanuh purvarupam, uttara hanuru-ttararupam, vaksandhih, jihva sandhanam, ityadhyatmam.
5. Now with regard to the body. The lower jaw is the prior form. The upper jaw is the later form. Speech is the meeting place. Tongue is the connector. This is with regard to the body.
6. itima mahasamhitah, ya evam eta mahasamhita vyakhyata veda, sandhiyate prajaya pasubhih, brahmavarcasenannad-yena suvargyena lokena.
6. These are the great combinations. Whoever knows these combina-tions thus explained, is united with progeny, cattle, the splendor of Brahman, food and the heavenly world.
A Teacher's Prayer for Knowledge and Prosperity
1. yas candasam risabho visvarupah, candobhyo, adhyamritat sambabhuva, sa mendro medhaya sprinotu, amritasya deva dharano bhuyasam, sariram me vicarsanam, jihva me madhumattama, karnabhyam bhuri visruvam, brahmanah koso, asi medhaya pihitah, srutam me gopaya.
1. He who is the bull among the desires, who assumes all forms, who is born from the immortal Vedic meters, may that great Indra cheer me with his intelligence. O divinity, may I be a possessor of immortality. May my body be vigorous; may there be exceeding sweetness in my tongue; may I hear profusely with my ears. You are the sheath of Brahman, covered by intelligence, protect my knowledge of the sruti (Vedas).
Notes: Srutam means what is heard, usually with regard to the hymns of the Vedas. This prayer seeking protection against loss of that knowledge through memory lapse.
2. avahanti vitanvana, kurvana, aciramatmanah, vasam si ma-ma gavasca, annapane ca sarvada, tato me sriyamavaha, lomasam pasubhih saha svaha, a ma yantu brahmacarinah svaha, vi ma, a, ayantu brahmacarinah svaha, pra ma, a, ayantu brahmacarinah svaha, damayantu brahmacarinah svaha, samayantu brahmacarinah svaha
2. Thereafter, may you bring to me the goddess of fortune, who is the carrier, the multiplier (of riches), and the long lasting maker for herself and for me of clothes, cows, food and drink for all times. May you bring her to me together with wool and cattle. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me from every side. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me variously. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me in a proper manner. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me restraining their bodies. Svaha. May students of chaste conduct come to me restraining their minds. Svaha.
Notes: This is a prayer to Indra seeking his help in obtaining favors from Sri Mahalakshmi, the goddess of prosperity. It is a continuation of the previous verse and presents some difficulty in translating it literally. The seeker first extols the god-dess as the carrier, multiplier and accomplisher of all good things in life. She does it not only for herself but for her devotees also at all times. Having made that observa-tion, the seeker then asks Indra to help him in getting her favors. A teacher's prosperity depends upon having more students. Therefore he is seeking the help of Indra to propitiate the goddess and obtain wealth in the form of cattle, wool, clothes, food and drink and students. Svaha means "personally (sva) I am (aha)," a word ut-tered for emphasis with each offering dropped or poured into the sacrifice.
3. yaso jane, asani svaha, sreyan vasyaso, asani svaha, tam tva bhaga pravisani svaha, sa ma bhaga pravisa svaha, tasmin sahasrasakhe ni bhagaham tvayi mrije svaha, yatha apah pravata ayanti, yatha masa aharjaram, evam mam brahmacarinah, dhatarayantu sarvatah svaha, prativeso'si pra ma bhahi pra ma padyasva.
3. May I become famous among people. Svaha. May I become renowned among the wealthy. Svaha. May I enter into you, O Abode of Light. Svaha. May you, O Abode of Light, enter into me. In You, that river of thousand branches, O Abode of Light, may I wash away my sins. Svaha. As water flows down a slope, as months into a year so, O Giver, may students of chaste conduct come to me from all directions. Svaha. You are the resting place. For me you shine. You come to me again and again.
The Four Mystic Utterances
1. bhur bhuvah suvah iti va etah tisro vyahritayah, tasam u ha smaitam caturthim, mahacamasyah pravedayate, maha iti, tat brahma, sa atma, anganyanya devatah, bhuriti va ayam lokah, bhuva ityantariksam, suvarityasau lokah maha ityadityah, adityena vava sarve loka mahiyante.
1. Bhur, bhuvah, suvah, these, verily, are the three mystic utterances. Besides them, there is the fourth, Mahah, made know by the son of Mahacamasa. That is Brahman, that is the Self, its limbs are other gods. Bhur is this world; bhuva is the mid-region; suvah is that world above, maha is sun. By the sun indeed all worlds become great.
Notes: Vyahritis are the mystic utterances used in daily prayers by the Vedic house-holders, while invoking the divinities. This in brief is the structure of the universe in the Vedic cosmology, the earth, the mid world, the higher world of heaven and the great world of the immortals. This division is with regard to the worlds (adhiloka).
2. Bhur iti va agnih, bhuva iti vayuh, suvarityadityah, maha iti candramah, candramasa vava sarvani jyotimsi mahiyante.
2. Bhur, verily is this fire; bhuva verily is this air; suvah verily is the sun; maha verily is the moon. By the moon indeed all the shining objects become great.
Notes: This interpretation of the four utterances is with regard to the shining objects (adhijyotisa).
3. bhur iti va ricah, bhuva iti samani, suvariti yajumsi maha iti brahma, brahmana vava sarve veda mahiyante,
3. Bhur, verily is the Rigveda hymn; bhuva verily is the Saman; suvah verily is the Yaju formula; maha verily is Brahman. By the Brahman indeed all the Vedas become great.
Notes: This interpretation of the four worlds is with regard to knowledge (adhividya).
4. bhuriti vai pranah, bhuva ityapanah, suvariti vyanah, maha ityannam, annena vava sarve prana mahiyante.
3. Bhur, verily is the incoming breath; bhuva verily is the downward breath; suvah verily is the diffused breath; maha verily is the food. By food indeed all the breaths become great.
Notes: This interpretation of the four worlds is with regard to the body (adhyatma).
5. ta va etas catasras caturdha, catasras catasro vyahritayah, ta yo veda, sa veda brahma, sarve, asmai deva balim avahanti.
5. These verily are the four of the four. Four (explanations) of the four utterances. He who knows them, he knows Brahman. To him all gods bring offerings.
Meditating Upon Brahman
1. sa ya eso, antarahridaya akasah, tasminnayam puruso manomayah, amrito hiranmayah, antarena taluke, ya esa stana ivavalambate, sendrayonih, yatrasau kesanto vivartate, vya-pohya sirsakapale, bhurityagnau pratitisthati, bhuva iti vayau.
1. This space that is inside the heart, in that is the Person, who is en-veloped by mind, immortal and golden hued. Between the two palates that which hangs down like the nipple (of a cow), where (from outside) the roots of the hair divides the head into two, that is the source of Indra. He (the departing Purusha) saying,"Bhur," rests in fire, and saying, "Bhuva," (rests) in air.
2. suvar ity aditye, maha iti brahmani, apnoti svarajyam, apnoti manasaspatim, vakpatis caksus patih, srotrapatih vijnanapatih, etat tato bhavati, akasa sariram brahma, satyatma pranaramam mana anandam, santisamriddham amritam, iti pracinayogyopassva.
2. Saying,"Suvah," (he) rests in the sun; saying, "Maha," he rests in Brahman, attains self-rule, attain the lordship of the mind, attains the lordship of speech, lordship of sight, lordship of hearing, lordship of wisdom. Thereafter he becomes Brahman whose body is the space, whose nature is truth, in whom the breaths come to rest, whose mind is blissful, who flourishes with peace and immortality. Thus, O Pracinayogya, you should meditate (upon Brahman).
The Fivefold Aggregates
1. prithivy antariksam dyaur diso, va avantaradisah, agnir vayur adityas candrama naksatrani, apa osadhayo vanaspataya akasa atma, ity adhibhutam, athadhyatmam, prano vyano, apana udanah samanah, caksuh srotram mano vak tvak, carma mamsam snavasthi majja, etad adhividhaya risir avocat, panktam va idam sarvam, panktena iva panktam sprinoti.
1. The earth, the mid-region, heaven, the quarters and the intermediate quarters; fire, air, the sun, the moon and the stars; water, plants, trees, space and the body; this is with regard to the elements (present in a being). Now, with regard to the bodily parts: prana, vyana, apana, udana, and samana; the eye, the ear, the mind, the speech and touch; skin, flesh, muscle, bone and marrow. Having seen this arrangement, a seer said: "All this is fivefold. With these the fivefold (aggregates) the fivefold (being) is filled up.
Notes: Adhibhtua is the physical or the material universe consisting of all the objects that are made up of the five elements. Adhyatma is what constitutes one's physical self or the mind and body. The last sentence is translated differently by different interpreters. The correct meaning is by these five aggregates, the body of the five-fold being is filled up.
The Significance of Aum
1. aum iti brahma, aum itidam sarvam, aum ity etad anukritir ha sma va apyo sravayetyasravayanti, aum iti samani gayanti, aum somiti sastrani sam santi, aum ity adhvaryuh pratigaram pratigrinati, aum iti brahma prasauti, aum ity agnihotram anujanati, aum iti brahmanah pravaksyann aha brahmopapna vaniti, brahmaivopapnoti.
1. This Aum is Brahman. This Aum is all this. This word, which is Aum, invokes obedience. Moreover, when told, "Aum, recite," they recite. Uttering Aum, they sing the Samans. Uttering, "Aum, Som," they recite scriptures. Uttering Aum, the Adharvayu priest responds with praise. Uttering Aum, the Brahman priest indicates approval. Uttering Aum the Agnihotri priest gives permission (to the sacrificer) to make offerings (in the fire sacrifice). A Brahmana says Aum when he was about to begin the recitation (of the Vedas), wishing, "May I attain Brahman." Thus (wishing) he attains Brahman.
Notes: This verse explains both the ritual and spiritual significance of Aum. Aum is chanted in the beginning of various types of recitation and ritual chanting. Aum is chanted to indicate the beginning of rituals as well as compliance. Aum is chanted to know the Self and realize Brahman.
The Order and Regularity of Life
1. ritam ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, satyam ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, tapas ca svadhyaya pravaca-ne ca, damas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, samas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, agnayas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, agnihotram ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, atithayas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, manu-sam ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, praja ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, prajanas ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, prajatis ca svadhyaya pravacane ca, satyam iti satyava ca rathitarah, tapa iti tapo-nityah paurusi-stih, svadhyaya pravacane eveti nako maud-galyah, taddhi tapas taddhi tapah.
1. Practice order and regularity (of your life) by self-study and teach-ing, truth by self-study and teaching, austerity by self-study and teaching, restraint of the body by self-study and teaching, sameness by self-study and teaching, the upkeep of daily fire sacrifices by self-study and teaching, the fire sacrifice by self-study and teaching, honoring the guests by self-study and teaching, serving the people by self-study and teaching, raising the offspring by self-study and teaching, procreation by self-study and teaching, and training the grandchildren by self-study and teaching. This is the truth, says Satyavacas, the son of Rathitara. This is austerity says Taponitya son of Parusisti. This is nothing but self-study and teaching says Naka, the son of Mudgala. That, indeed, is austerity. That, indeed, is austerity.
Notes: Svadhyaya means learning the Vedas by self-effort through recitation, re-membrance and contemplation. Rtam means the order and regularity of the world or the orderly flow of time and events as willed by God. Rtma is maintained by God by enforcing divine laws through duty. It is possible only when everyone, from the high-est to the lowest in the hierarchy of creation perform their obligatory duties selflessly. Duty (dharma) and order go hand in hand. And it has to be upheld in every aspect of life by a person who is bound to his duty (dharma) by means of self-study and teaching. Other aspects of dharma like truth, austerity, sacrifices, procreation, raising a family should also be practiced with the help of these two, self-study and teaching. Self-study increases one's own knowledge and awareness of dharma. Teaching increases the knowledge and awareness of others. When everyone in socie-ty has right knowledge, divine laws flourish and the order and regularity of the world is ensured. This is the essence of this verse. This is the truth. This is an austerity in itself. Nothing else is required to uphold dharma, other than self-study and teaching.
Trisanku on Knowledge and Wisdom
1. aham vriksasya reriva, kirtih pristham gireriva, urdhvapa-vitro vajiniva svamritam asmi, dravinam savarcasam, sumedha amritoksitah, iti trisankor vedanuvacanam.
1. I am the mover of the tree (of my family). My fame is like the peak of a mountain. My mind is pure. I verily have as my food the nectar of immortality found in the sun. I am bright with the wealth (of knowledge). I am endowed with the right wisdom which is eternal and imperishable. Thus proclaimed Trisanku after knowing (the Self).
Notes: This verse is interpreted variously. According to some the tree is the tree of creation or the universe. I believe it is the reference to the family tree. When a person achieves liberation, he not only liberates himself, but also helps his ancestors im-mensely by uplifting them to the immortal world by his very achievement. Thus, Trisanku declared in this verse that he helped his ancestors to move to the higher world. Urdhvam is interpreted by some as the source. I believe the reference to the head or the mind, which constitute the uppermost part of the body is very clear.
Farewell Advice to Students
1. vedam anucyacaryontevasinamanusasti, satyam vada, dhar-mam cara, svadhyayan ma pramadah, acaryaya priyam dhanam ahritya prajatantum ma vyavaccetsih, satyan na pramadi-tavyam, dharman na pramaditavyam, kusalan na pramadi-tavyam, bhutyai na pramaditavyam, svadhyaya pravaca-nabh-yam na pramaditavyam.
1. After teaching the Vedas, in the end, the teacher instructs the pupil. Speak the truth. Perform your duty. Do not neglect the self-study of the Vedas. After giving the gift desired by the teacher, do not break the chain of your progeny. Do not neglect truth. Do not neglect duty. Do not neglect your health. Do not neglect your material wellbeing. Do not neglect the self-study and the teaching of the Vedas.
2. devapitrikaryabhyam na pramaditavyam, matri devo bhava, pitri devo bhava, acarya devo bhava, atithi devo bhava, yany anavadyani karmani, tani sevitavyani, no itarani, yany asmakam sucaritani, tani tvayopasyani, no itarani.
2. Do not neglect your duties to gods and ancestors. May your mother be honored as a goddess by you; may your father be honored as a god by you; may your teacher be honored as a god by you; may your guest be honored as a god by you. Whatever actions are free from egoism, they should be practiced, not others. Whatever good conduct you find among us (teachers), that alone should be practiced, not others.
Notes: Anava means egoism or acting like a particle (anu) distinct from God. Actions arising out of egoism should be discarded since they lead to karmic consequences and bondage. Actions should be performed as an offering. A teacher should be a role model, but the teacher himself is suggesting here that students should not follow their teachers blindly. They should follow only that conduct of the teachers which is considered good (sucarita).
3. ye ke casmaccreyamso brahmanah, tesam tvayasanena prasvasitavyam, sraddhaya deyam, asradd-haya'deyam, sriya deyam, hriya deyam, bhiya deyam, samvida deyam, atha yadi te karmavicikitsa va vrittavicikitsa va syat.
3. Those brahmanas among us who are praiseworthy, their fatigue should be removed by offering them a seat. What is given should be given with sincerity, not to be given with insincerity, given plentifully, given with modesty, given with obedience, given with kindness. Now, if there is any doubt in you with regard to duties or if there is any doubt in you with regard to your profession.
4. ye tatra brahmanah sammarsinah, yukta ayuktah, aluksa dharmakamah syuh, yatha te tatra varteran, tatha tatra vartthah; athabhyakhyatesu, ye tatra brahmanah sammarsinah, yukta ayuktah, aluksa dharmakamah syuh, yatha te tesu varteran, tatha tesu vartethah, esa adesah, esa upadesah, esa vedopanisat, etadanusasanam, evamupasitavyam, evamu caita-dupasyam.
4. You should conduct yourself in such and such manner as those brahmanas who are competent to occupy the seat of a judge, who can discern the right from the wrong, who are not cruel, who are interested in performing actions for the sake of dharma would behave in such sit-uations. Now with regard to those who have been accused, you should conduct yourself in such and such manner as those brahmanas who are competent to occupy the seat of a judge, who can discern the right from the wrong, who are not cruel, who are interested in performing actions for the sake of dharma would behave in such situations. This is the command. This is the teaching. This is the secret teaching of the Vedas. This is the instruction. This one should follow. This alone should be followed.
Notes: Yuktayukta means right and wrong or what is appropriate and inappropriate and used in reference to discerning knowledge (vicaksana jnanam). This is an im-portant quality for any person who performs the functions of a judge. Sammarsina means to be qualified to sit upon the seat of a judge to deliver judgment. The sugges-tion given in this verse to the young students is if they have to judge any actions or speak against anyone who has been accused of doing wrong, they have to follow the best practices followed by wise people in society and uphold the values they uphold.
A Joint Invocation for Divine Help
1. aum sam no mitrah sam varunah; sam no bhavaty aryama; sam na indro brihaspatih; sam no visnururukramah; namo brahmane; namaste vayo; tvam eva pratyaksam brahmasi; tvam eva pratyaksam brahma vadisyami; ritam vadisyami; satyam vadisyami; tanmamavatu; advaktaramavatu; avatu mam; avatu vaktaram; aum santih santih santih.
1. May Mitra be favorable to us. May Varuna be favorable. May Aryaman be favorable to us. May Indra and Brihaspati be favorable to us. May Vishnu, of wide strides, be favorable to us. Salutation to Brahman. Salutations O Vayu. You, verily, are the visible Brahman. You alone I declare as the visible Brahman. I declare (you) as the con-troller. I declare (you) as the truth. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. May It protect me. May It protect the teacher. Aum. Peace. Peace. Peace.
Chapter 2 - Brahmananda Valli
Brahman and Creation
sa ha nav avatu saha nau bhunaktu saha viryam karavavahai tejasvi nav adhitam astu; ma vidvisavahai; aum, santih, santih, santih.
May He protect us both; may He nourish us both together; may we both become energetic by working together; may our study illumine (our minds); may there be no hatred between us. Aum, peace, peace, peace.
1. aum brahmavid apnoti param, tad esa, abhyukta, satyam jnanam anantam brahma, yo veda nihitam guhayam parame vyoman, so, asnute sarvan kaman saha, brahmana vipasciteti, tasmadva etasmadatmana akasah sambhutah, akasadvayuh, vayoragnih, agnerapah, adbhyah prithivi, prithivya osadhayah, osadhibhyo, annam, annatpurusah, sa va esa puruso, annnarasamayah, tasyedameva sirah, ayam daksinah paksah, ayamuttarah paksah, ayamatma, idam puccham pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.
1. Aum, the knower of Brahman attains the Supreme. Of this there is the saying: He who knows Brahman as truth, knowledge, infinite, who is hidden in the cave (of the heart) and in the supreme space, enjoys all desires and becomes one with Brahman, the omniscient. From that (Brahman) who is this Self manifested space, from space air, from air fire, from fire water, from water the earth, from the earth the plants, from the plants food, from the food the being. This, verily, is the being who is made up of food. This, indeed, is his head. This (right side) is the southern quarter. This (left side) is the northern quarter. This (the middle part) is the body. This (lower side) is the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.
The Importance of Food
1. annadvai prajah prajayante, yah kasca prithivim sritah, atho annenaiva jivanti, athainadapi yantyantatah, annam hi bhuta-nam jyestham, tasmat sarvausadhamucyate, sarvam vai te'an-namapnuvanti, ye, annam brahmopasate, annam hi bhutanam jyestham, tasmat sarvausadhamucyate, annad bhutani jayante, jatanyannena vardhante, adyate, atti ca bhutani, tasmadannam taducyata iti, tasmadva etasmadannarasamayat, anyo, antara atma pranamayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah, tasya prana eva sirah, vyano daksinah paksah, apana uttarah paksah, akasa atma, prithivi puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati
1.From food only are produced all beings, whatsoever that dwell upon earth. Further, by food only they live and in the end to food only they return. Food alone is the eldest of the living beings. Therefore, it is called the universal medicine. Those who worship food as Brahman, they obtain all food. Food alone is the eldest of the living beings. There-fore it is called the universal medicine. From food, all beings are born; having born, by food they grow. It is eaten (by beings) and its eats beings. Therefore, it is called food. Now, different from this (body) which is made up of food is another body inside, which is made up of breath. By that (breath) is filled this (food body). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, the in breath is its head, the diffused breath the right side, the downward breath is the left side, the space is the body, the earth is the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.
Breath and Mind
1. pranam deva anu prananti, manusyah pasavasca ye, prano hi bhutanamayuh, tasmat sarvayusamucyate, sarvameva ta ayuryanti, ye pranam brahmopasate, prano hi bhutanamayuh, tasmat sarvayusamucyata iti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, tasmadva etasmat pranamayat, anyo' antara atma manomayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah, tasya yajureva sirah, rigdaksinah paksah, samottarah paksah, adesa atma, atharvangirasah puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.
1. The organs act by following the breath; so do humans and the animals. Breath, indeed, is the life of beings. Therefore, it is called the life of all. Those who worship Brahman as breath they attain full life, for breath, indeed, is the life of beings. Therefore, it is called the life of all. This, indeed, is the soul of that prior (food) body. Now, different from this (breath body) which is made up of breath is another body inside, which is made up of mind. By that (mind) is filled this (breath body). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, the Yajurveda is its head, the Rigveda the right side, the Samaveda is the left side, the teaching is the body, the hymns of Atharvan and Angirasa are the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.
Mind and Intelligence
1. yato vaco nivartante, aprapya manasa saha, anandam brahmano vidvan, na bibheti kadacaneti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, tasmadva etasmanmanomayat, anyo, antara atma vijnanamayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah, tasya sraddhaiva sirah, ritam daksinah paksah, satyamuttarah paksah, yoga atma, mahah puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.
1. From where the words return, along with the mind, unable to attain it, that blissful Brahman he who knows does not fear even a little. This, indeed, is the soul of the that prior one (breath body). Now, different from this which is made up of mind is another body inside, which is made up of intelligence. By that (intelligence) is filled this (mental body). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, faith is its head, the order and regularity of the world the right side, truth the left side, yoga the body, the great one (intelligence) the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.
Notes: Mind is usually considered a receptacle of thoughts. It does not produce thoughts. Thoughts are believed to exist in the space of Brahman and they enter the mind of a person according to his desires and inclinations in which intelligence said to play an important role. Intelligence gives us the ability to exercise our will. It is there-fore considered superior to the mind.
Intelligence and Bliss
1. vijnanam yajnam tanute,karmani tanute, api ca, vijnanam devah sarve, brahma jyesthamupasate,vijnanam brahma cedveda, tasmaccenna pramadyati, sarire papmano hitva, sar-vankamansamasnuta iti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, tasmadva etasmadvijnanamayat, anyo, antara atma, anandamayah, tenaisa purnah, sa va esa purusavidha eva, tasya purusavidhatam, anvayam purusavidhah,tasya priyameva sirah, modo daksinah paksah, pramoda uttarah paksah, anan-da atma,brahma puccam pratistha, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.
1. Intelligence sets in motion the sacrifice. It sets in motion all obligatory duties. All the gods worship intelligence as Brahman, the eldest. He who knows Brahman as intelligence does not neglect (his duties). Getting rid of all the sins of his body, he attains all desires. This, indeed, is the soul of the that prior one (mental body). Now, different from this which is made up of intelligence is another body inside, which is made up of bliss. By that (bliss) is filled this (Self). This one is also in the shape of the being. As is the shape of that form of the being so is the shape of this form of the being. Of him, pleasure is its head, happiness the right side, joy the left side, bliss the body, Brahman the tail, the foundation. Regarding this there is also this verse.
Brahman, the Self in the Body
6. asanneva sa bhavati, asadbrahmeti veda cet, asti brahmeti cedveda, santamenam tato viduriti, tasyaisa eva sarira atma, yah purvasya, athato, anuprasnah, utavidvanamum lokam pretya, kascana gaccati u, aho vidvanamum lokam pretya kas-citsamasnuta u, so, akamayata, bahu syam prajayeyeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva, idam sarvamasrijata, yadidam kinca, tatsristva, tadevanupravisat, tadanupravisya, sacca tyacca abha-vat, niruktam caniruktam ca, nilayanam canilayanam ca, vijna-nam cavijnanam ca, satyam canritam ca satyamabhavat, yadid-am kinca, tatsatyamityacaksate, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.
1. Non-existent, verily, becomes, when one knows thus, "Non-existence is this Brahman." Existent becomes by that knowing, when one knows thus, "Brahman does exist." This (Brahman), indeed, is the soul of the that prior one (bliss body). Now, (the answer) as to the following question. Whether anyone who knows not upon departing from this life go to the other world; or does anyone who knows upon departing from here attains that world? He desired, "May I become many; may I be born." He performed austerity. Having performed the austerity, out of that austerity, He created all this, whatever that is here. Having created it, he entered into it. Having entered into it, he became both the manifested (gross) and the unmanifested (subtle), the definable and the indefinable, the supporting and the non-supporting, the intelligent and the not-intelligent, the true and the untrue. The true became all this, what-ever. This is what they call the true. Regarding this there is also this verse.
Notes: This verse has been interpreted variously by different scholars. For me the correct meaning seems to be that Brahman who is both manifested and unmanifested, existence and non-existence (sat and asat), becomes existent for those who believe that He exists and becomes non-existent for those who believe that He does not exist. Thus God does not force the atheists and non-believers to think otherwise. As declared in the Bhagavadgita, He strengthens their faith in their non-belief according to their predominant thoughts (samskaras).
The Blissful Nature of Brahman
1. asadva idamagra asit, tato vai sadajayata, tadatmanam svayamakuruta, tasmattatsukritamucyata iti, yadvai tat sukritam, raso vai sah, rasam hyevayam labdhvanandi bhavati, ko hyevanyatkah pranyat, yadesa akasa anando na syat, esa hyeva, a, anandayati, yada hyevaisa etasminnadrisye, anatmye, anirukte, anilayane, abhayam pratistham vindate, atha so, abhayam gato bhavati, yada hyevaisa etasminnudaramantaram kurute, atha tasya bhayam bhavati, tatveva bhayam viduso, amanvanasya, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.
1. Non-existent, verily, this (world) was in the beginning. From that verily was born existence. It made itself as the Self (of the existence). Therefore, it is called a virtuous act. Verily, that which is well made is the delight of existence; for truly on obtaining the delight of existence one becomes blissful. Indeed, who can breathe in and breathe out, if this bliss does not exist in the space? This one alone is That which brings blissfulness. When this one (the existence) becomes established in That which is invisible, incorporeal, inexpressible and fearless, then does indeed one becomes fearless. When this one (existence) finds even the smallest distinction, then he becomes fearful. That, indeed, is the fear of the impure arising from the thoughts of separation (anava).
Notes: Fear and insecurity arise when we think we are distinct and different from the rest of creation. It makes us distrustful of the world and people around us and pro-tect ourselves from them. This notion of distinction also drives us into selfish and egoistic thinking whereby we indulge in desire-ridden actions and become bound to the cycle of births and deaths, which in itself is the cause of great fear. However, fear does not exist for those who find God everywhere and in everything. If you genuinely believe that Brahman exists in everyone and in everything, including yourself, that identification alone makes your fearless and assured. Anava means egoism or living like a small particle (anu) in the cosmic sea of creation. When this feeling prevails, one is bound to suffer from fear and insecurity, fear of the unknown, fear of gain and loss, fear of death, sin and suffering.
Progressive States of Bliss
1. bhisa, asmadvatah pavate, bhisodeti suryah, bhisa, asmadag-niscendrasca, mrityurdhavati pancama iti, saisanandasya mimamsa bhavati, yuva syatsadhuyuva, adhyayakah, asistho dridhistho balist-hah, tasyeyam prithivi sarva vittasya purna syat, sa eko manu-sa anandah, te ye satam manusa anandah, sa eko manusyagan-dharvanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam manusyagandharvanamanandah, sa eko devagan-dharvanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam devagandharvanamanandah, sa ekah pitrinam ciralokalokanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam pitrinam ciralokalokanamanandah, sa eka ajanaja-nam devanamanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam ajanajanam devanamanandah, sa ekah karmade-vanam devanamanandah, ye karmana devanapiyanti, srotriy-asya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam karmadevanam devanamanandah, sa eko deva-namanandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam devanamanandah, sa eka indrasya, a, anandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satamindrasya, a, anandah, sa eko brihaspateranandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam brihaspateranandah, sa ekah prajapateranandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
te ye satam prajapateranandah, sa eko brahmana anandah, srotriyasya cakamahatasya,
sa yascayam puruse, yascasavaditye, sa ekah, sa ya evamvit, as-mallokatpretya, etamannamayamatmanamupasankramati, eta-m pranamayam atmanam upasankramati, etam manomayam atmanam upasankramati, etam vijnanamayam atmanam upasankramati, etam anandamayam atmanamupasankramati, tadapyesa sloko bhavati.
1. From fear of Him Vatah (the wind) blows, from fear of Him the sun rises. From fear of Him the five divinities such as Agni (fire), Indra, and Mrityu (death) work. Now regarding the bliss of this one this is the (conclusion drawn from) philosophical enquiry.
If there were a young man, a good young man, well versed in the Ve-das, efficient in action, with steady mind and senses, strong and if the wealth of the earth were entirely for him only, that is one measure of human bliss. A hundred times of that bliss is one measure of the bliss of celestial humans known as the Gandharvas, so also (the bliss) of a per-son well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires. A hundred times of the bliss of celestial humans is one measure of the bliss of the divine celestials known as Deva Gandharvas, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
A hundred times the bliss of ancestors (pitrs) in their long-lasting world is one measure of the bliss of those who become gods by birth in the divine world of Ajana, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
A hundred times the bliss of those who become gods by birth in the di-vine world of Ajana is one measure of the bliss of those who become gods by duty known as karmadevas, who reach the gods by their sacrifices, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
A hundred times the bliss of those who become gods by duty is one measure of the bliss of the (immortal) gods, so also (the bliss) of a per-son well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
A hundred times the bliss of the (immortal gods) is one measure of the bliss of Indra, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
A hundred times the bliss of Indra is one measure of the bliss of Brihaspati, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
A hundred times the bliss of Brihaspati is one measure of the bliss of Prajapati, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
A hundred times the bliss of Prajapati is one measure of the bliss of Brahma, so also (the bliss) of a person well versed in the Vedas and who is not stricken with desires.
He who is in this person, and who is in the sun above, He is one only. Whoever knows this, upon departing from this world, attains the body made up of food, attains the body made up of breath, attains the body made up of mind, attains the body made up of intelligence and attains the body which is made up of bliss.
Notes: Different types of men, gods and celestial beings are mentioned in this verse. The Gandharvas are celestial beings who inhabit the mid-region. They are endowed with ethereal bodies and exceptional artistic talents. They are classified here as hu-man gandharvas, who assume human form at will and visit the earth frequently, and as godly gandharvas, who inhabit Indra's heaven and entertain the gods. Three types of gods are mentioned. Those who are born as gods by virtue of the merit of their past lives, those who become equal to gods upon earth by virtue of their obligatory duties and sacrifices and the real gods who are immortal, who said to be thirty three. The last part of the verse signifies that whoever knows the nature of Brahman will have all the bodies in his next birth when he returns from the ancestral world.
Offering Actions to the Self Within
1. yato vaco nivartante, aprapya manasa saha, anandam brahm-ano vidvan, na bibheti kutascaneti, etam ha vava na tapati, kimaham sadhu nakaravam, kimaham papamakaravamiti, sa ya evam vidvanete atmanam sprinute, ubhe hyevaisa ete atma-nam sprinute, ya evam veda, ityupanisat.
1. From where the words return, along with the mind, unable to attain it, that blissful Brahman who knows, he does not fear even a little. Such a person, verily, is not tormented by the thought, "Why did not I per-form good deeds? Why have I indulged in sinful actions?" Whoever knows this offers them to his Self. Indeed, he offers both to himself, who knows thus. Such is the secret teaching.
Notes: The knower of the Self is not troubled by the nature of his actions since he knows that the Self is the source of his action. Accordingly he offers all his actions to his Self, without desiring their fruit and thereby escapes from their consequences. Therefore, he is not troubled by the nature of his actions. Fear rules our minds. We fear for various reasons and philosophically speaking, our fear stems from the reali-zation or the understanding that we are lonely and helpless in this world. This fear is normal because we learn from our experience and perceptions that we are limited in many ways and against the forces of Nature we cannot prevail for long. Fear also arises, if you are a religious person, from the idea of sin and its consequences. Our actions are rooted in our desires and our desires lead to attachment and the continu-ation of our existence in the cycle of births and deaths. All these produce fear and that fear is our constant experience. This fear disappears only when we realize our eternal Nature and experiences oneness with Brahman.
Chapter 3 – Bhrigu Valli
Varuna's Teachings to Bhrigu
aum, sa ha nav avatu saha nau bhunaktu saha viryam karavavahai tejasvi nav adhitam astu; ma vidvisavahai; aum, santih, santih, santih.
Aum, may He protect us both; may He nourish us both together; May we both become energetic by working together; may our study illumine (our minds); may there be no hated between us. Aum, peace, peace, peace.
1. bhrigurvai varunih, varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tasma etatprovaca, annam pranam caksuh srotram mano vacamiti, tam hovaca, yato va imani bhutani jayante, yena jatani jivanti, yatprayantyabhisamvisanti, tadvi-jijnasasva, tad brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva
1. Bhrigu, the son of Varuna, went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman." To him, he said this, "Food, breath, eye, ear, mind, speech." He said (further), "That from which these beings are born, that by which, when born, these beings live, that into which they enter upon departing, That you should know, That is Brahman. He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...
Food is Brahman
1. annam brahmeti vyajanat, annaddhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, annena jatani jivanti, annam prayantyabhisam-visantiti, tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijna-sasva, tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva.
1. He realized that food was Brahman. From food, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by food, and upon departing they enter into food and become one with it. Having realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman."To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...
Breath is Brahman
1. prano brahmeti vyajanat, pranaddhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, pranena jatani jivanti, pranam prayantyabhisa-mvisantiti, tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijna-sasva, tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva.
1. He realized that breath was Brahman. From breath, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by breath, and upon departing they enter into breath and become one with it. Having realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman." To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...
Mind is Brahman
1. mano brahmeti vyajanat, manaso hyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, manasa jatani jivanti, manah prayantyabhi-samvisantiti, tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupasasara, adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijna-sasva, tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata, sa tapastaptva.
1. He realized that mind was Brahman. From mind, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by mind, and upon departing they enter into mind and become one with it. Having realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman. "To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...
Intelligence is Brahman
1. vijnanam brahmeti vyajanat, vijnanaddhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, vijnanena jatani jivanti, vijnanam prayantya-bhisamvisantiti,tadvijnaya, punareva varunam pitaramupa-sasara,adhihi bhagavo brahmeti, tam hovaca, tapasa brahma vijijnasasva,tapo brahmeti, sa tapo, atapyata,sa tapastaptva.
1. He realized that intelligence was Brahman. From intelligence, verily, beings are born here. Being born, they live by intelligence, and upon departing they enter into intelligence and become one with it. Having
realized this, he again went near his father and said, "Godman, teach me Brahman. "To him, he said this, "Know Brahman through austerities. Austerity is Brahman." He performed austerities. Having performed austerities...
Bliss is Brahman
1. anando brahmeti vyajanat, anandadhyeva khalvimani bhutani jayante, anandena jatani jivanti, anandam prayanty abhisamvisantiti, saisa bhargavi varuni vidya, parame vyoman pratisthita, sa ya evam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, mahan bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahan kirtya.
1. He realized that bliss was Brahman. From bliss beings are born here. Being born, they live by bliss and upon departing they enter into bliss and become one with it. This then is the knowledge taught by Varuna to (his son) Bhrigu, which (starting from food) becomes established in the highest (bliss). He who knows this becomes established (in the bliss). He becomes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He be-comes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.
Food and Breath
1. annam na nindyat, tadvratam, prano va annam, sariram annadam, prane sariram pratisthitam, sarire pranah pratisthitah, tad etad annam anne pratisthitam, sa ya etad an-nam anne pratisthitam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, mahan bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahan kirtya.
1. Do not speak ill of food, that should be the vow. Breath verily is food, the body is the eater of food. In the breath does the body rest. In the body does the breath rest. Thus, food is established in food. He who knows that this food is established in the (other) food becomes established. He becomes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.
Food and Water
1. annam na paricaksita, tad vratam, apo va annam, jyotir annadam, apsu jyotih pratisthitam, jyotisy apah pratisthitah, tad etad annam anne pratisthitam, sa ya etad annam anne pratisthitam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, ma-han bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahan kirtya.
1. Do not reject food. That should be the vow. Water, verily is food, fire is the eater of food. In water, does fire rest. In fire, does water rest. Thus, food is established in food. He who knows that this food is established in the (other) food becomes established. He becomes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.
Food and Earth
1. annam bahu kurvita, tadvratam, prithivi va annam, akaso, annadah, prithivyam akasah pratisthitah, akase prithivi pratisthita, tad etad annam anne pratisthitam, sa ya etad an-nam anne pratisthitam veda pratitisthati, annavan annado bhavati, mahan bhavati prajaya pasubhir brahmavarcasena, mahankirtya.
1. Make food plentiful. That should be the vow. The earth, verily is food, space is the eater of food. In space does the earth rest. In the earth does space rest. Thus, food is established in food. He who knows that this food is established in the (other) food becomes established. He be-comes a possessor of food, and an eater (of food). He becomes great in offspring, in cattle, in the vigor of Brahman and in very great fame.
The Importance of Offering Food
1. na kancana vasatau pratyacaksita,tadvratam, tasmadyaya kaya ca vidhaya bahvannam prapnuyat, aradhyasma annamityacaksate, etadvai mukhato, anam raddham, mukhato, asma annam radhyate, etadvai madhyato, anam raddham, madhyato, asma annam radhyate, edadva antato, annam raddham, antato, asma annam radhyate.
1. Do not refuse lodging to anyone. That should be the vow. Therefore, by any method whatsoever, one should gather plenty of food, so that people can say, "There is food readily available to him." If this food is given early, food comes to the giver early. If the food is offered in the middle, food comes to the giver in the middle. If the food is given in the end, food comes to the giver in the end.
Notes: If the food is given early means if the food is offered to the guest quickly and readily at the very beginning without letting the guest wait for it. If the food is of-fered in the middle means if the food is offered with some delay or hesitation after letting the guest wait for it. If the food is offered in the end means, if the food is offered with great reluctance after everyone in the house ate or offering the left overs at the end of a long wait.
2. ya evam veda, ksema iti vaci, yogaksema iti pranapanayoh, karmeti hastayoh, gatiriti padayoh, vimuktiriti payau, iti manusih samajnah, atha daivih, triptir iti vristau, balamiti vidyuti.
2. He who knows this, as preservation in speech, as keeping what is acquired in the in breath and downward breath, as action in the hands, as movement in the feet, as release in the anus, these are the signs (of Brahman) in humans. Now, as to (the signs) in the deities, satisfaction in rains, strength in the lightning.,
3. yasa iti pasusu, jyotiriti naksatresu, prajatiramritamananda ityupasthe, sarvamityakase, tatpratisthetyupasita, pratisthavan bhavati, tanmaha ityupasita, mahanbhavati, tanmana ityupa-sita, manavanbhavati
3. As fame in cattle, light in the stars, procreation, immortality and bliss in the sexual organs, as everything in space (one should meditate upon Brahman). One should contemplate upon That as the support, then one is supported. One should contemplate upon that as greatness, then one becomes great. One should contemplate upon That as the mind, then one becomes a thinker.
4. tannama ityupasita, namyante, asmai kamah, tadbrahme-tyupasita, brahmavanbhavati, tadbrahmanah parimara ityupa-sita, paryenam mriyante dvisantah sapatnah, pari ye, apriya bhratrivyah, sa yascayam puruse, yascasavaditye, sa ekah.
4. One should worship That bowing down, then for him all desires bow down. One should worship That as supreme, then one becomes en-dowed with the Supreme. One should worship That as Brahman's means of destruction, then one's rivals who envy him will perish, so also those rivals whom he dislikes.
5. sa ya evam vit, asmallokat pretya, etam annamayam atmanam upasankramya, etam pranamayam atmanam upasan-kramya, etam manomayam atmanam upasankramya, etam vijnanamayam atmanam upasankramya, etam anandamayam atmanam upasankramya, iman llokankamanni kamarupya-nuancaran, etat sama gayannaste, ha vu ha vu ha vu.
5. He who knows this, upon departing from this world, attains this self made of food, attains the self made of breath, attains the self made of mind, attains the self made of intelligence, attains the self made of bliss. In these worlds, he goes up and down, eating the food he desires, assuming the forms he desires. He sits singing this chant (of great joy), "Aha, oho, aha, oho, aha, oho."
6. aham annam aham annam aham annam, aham annadah, aham annadah, aham annadah, aham slokakrit aham slokakrit aham slokakrit, aham asmi prathamaja ritasya, purvam devebhyo, amritasya nabhayi, yo ma dadati sa ideva ma, vah, aham annam annam adantamadmi, aham visvam bhuvanam abhyabhavam, suvarna jyotih, ya evam veda, ityupanisat.
6. I am food, I am food, I am food, I am the eater of food. I am the eater of food. I am the eater of food. I am the binding agent, I am the binding agent, I am the binding agent. I am the first born of the cosmic order, before the gods and the center of Immortality. He who offers me, he alone protects me. He who eats food (without offering), I, as food, eat him. I, as the Supreme Lord, overpower the whole world. I am the golden light like that of the sun. Whosoever knows this (becomes so). This is the secret teaching.
The Peace Chant
aum sa ha nav avatu saha nau bhunaktu saha viryam karavavahai tejasvi nav adhitam astu; ma vidvisavahai; aum, santih, santih, santih.
Aum, may He protect us both; may He nourish us both together; May we both become energetic by working together; may our study illumine (our minds); may there be no hated between us. Aum, peace, peace, peace.
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where You shall find The list of all Upanishads available online, translations, etc... Upanishad related Sanskrit Documents in Devanagari script
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1921 Taittirya Upanishad Swami Sharvananda 1903 Tattirya Upanishad Mahadeva Shastri 2011 Version T.N.Sethumadhavan
Written and compiled by Jedi Simon. 17/07/2019, various authors, sources and writers, commentators and teachers. Educational and spiritual use only.
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Koshas, during karmic experience - Jedi Simon
Taittiriya is a Sanskrit word that means "from Tittiri". The root of this name has been interpreted in two ways: "from Vedic sage Tittiri", who was the student of Yāska; or alternatively, it being a collection of verses from mythical students who became "partridges" (birds) in order to gain knowledge. The later root of the title comes from the nature of Taittriya Upanishad which, like the rest of "dark or black Yajur Veda", is a motley, confusing collection of unrelated but individually meaningful verses.
Each chapter of the Taittiriya Upanishad is called a Valli, which literally means a medicinal vine-like climbing plant that grows independently yet is attached to a main tree. Paul Deussen states that this symbolic terminology is apt and likely reflects the root and nature of the Taittiriya Upanishad, which too is largely independent of the liturgical Yajur Veda, and is attached to the main text. The Taittiriya Upanishad was composed in a pre-Buddhist period, possibly 6th to 5th century BCE.
The Taittiriya Upanishad has three chapters: the Siksha Valli, the Ananda Valli and the Bhrigu Valli. The first chapter Siksha Valli includes twelve Anuvaka (lessons). The second chapter Ananda Valli, sometimes called Brahmananda Valli includes nine verses. The third chapter Bhrigu Valli consists of ten verses. Some ancient and medieval Hindu scholars have classified the Taittiriya Upanishad differently, based on its structure. For example, Sâyana in his Bhasya (review and commentary) calls the Shiksha Valli (seventh chapter of the Aranyaka) as Sâmhitî-upanishad, and he prefers to treat the Ananda Valli and Bhrigu Vallu (eighth and ninth Prapâthakas) as a separate Upanishad and calls it the Vāruny Upanishad.
The Upanishad is one of the earliest known texts where index was included at the end of each section, along with main text, as a structural layout of the book. At the end of each Vallĩ in Taittiriya Upanishad manuscripts, there is an index of the Anuvakas which it contains. The index includes the initial words and final words of each Anuvaka, as well as the number of sections in that Anuvaka. For example, the first and second Anuvakas of Shiksha Valli state in their indices that there are five sections each in them, the fourth Anuvaka asserts there are three sections and one paragraph in it, while the twelfth Anuvaka states it has one section and five paragraphs. The Ananda Valli, according to the embedded index, state each chapter to be much larger than currently surviving texts. For example, the 1st Anuvaka lists pratika words in its index as brahmavid, idam, ayam, and states the number of sections to be twenty one. The 2nd Anuvaka asserts it has twenty six sections, the 3rd claims twenty two, the 4th has eighteen, the 5th has twenty two, the 6th Anuvaka asserts in its index that it has twenty eight sections, 7th claims sixteen, 8th states it includes fifty one sections, while the 9th asserts it has eleven. Similarly, the third Valli lists the pratika and anukramani in the index for each of the ten Anuvakas.
The Siksha Valli chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad derives its name from Shiksha, which literally means "instruction, education". The various lessons of this first chapter are related to education of students in ancient Vedic era of India, their initiation into a school and their responsibilities after graduation. It mentions lifelong "pursuit of knowledge", includes hints of "Self-knowledge", but is largely independent of the second and third chapter of the Upanishad which discuss Atman and Self-knowledge. Paul Deussen states that the Shiksha Valli was likely the earliest chapter composed of this Upanishad, and the text grew over time with additional chapters.
The Siksha Valli includes promises by students entering the Vedic school, an outline of basic course content, the nature of advanced courses and creative work from human relationships, ethical and social responsibilities of the teacher and the students, the role of breathing and proper pronunciation of Vedic literature, the duties and ethical precepts that the graduate must live up to post-graduation.
A student's promise - First Anuvāka
The first anuvaka (lesson) of Taittiriya Upanishad starts with benedictions, wherein states Adi Shankara, major Vedic deities are proclaimed to be manifestations of Brahman (Cosmic Soul, the constant Universal Principle, Unchanging Reality). Along with the benedictions, the first anuvaka includes a prayer and promise that a student in Vedic age of India was supposed to recite. Along with benedictions to Vedic deities, the recitation stated:
The right will I will speak, and I will speak the true,
May That (Brahman) protect me; may That protect the teacher.
Om! Peace! Peace! Peace!
— Taittiriya Upanishad, Translated by Swami Sharvananda
Adi Shankara comments that the "Peace" phrase is repeated thrice, because there are three potential obstacles to the gain of Self-knowledge by a student: one's own behavior, other people's behavior, and the devas; these sources are exhorted to peace.
Phonetics and the theory of connecting links - Second and Third Anuvāka
The second anuvaka highlights phonetics as an element of the Vedic instruction. The verse asserts that the student must master the principles of sound as it is created and as perceived, in terms of the structure of linguistics, vowels, consonants, balancing, accentuation (stress, meter), speaking correctly, and the connection of sounds in a word from articulatory and auditory perspectives. Taittirĩya Upanishad's emphasizes, in its later anuvakas, svādhyāya, a practice that served as the principal tool for the oral preservation of the Vedas in their original form for over two millennia. Svādhyāya as a part of student's instruction, involved understanding the linguistic principles coupled with recitation practice of Indian scriptures, which enabled the mastering of entire chapters and books with accurate pronunciation. The ancient Indian studies of linguistics and recitation tradition, as mentioned in the second anuvaka of Taittiriya Upanishad, helped transmit and preserve the extensive Vedic literature from 2nd millennium BCE onwards, long before the methods of mass printing and book preservation were developed. Michael Witzel explains it as follows:
The Vedic texts were orally composed and transmitted, without the use of script, in an unbroken line of transmission from teacher to student that was formalized early on. This ensured an impeccable textual transmission superior to the classical texts of other cultures; it is, in fact, something like a tape-recording.... Not just the actual words, but even the long-lost musical (tonal) accent (as in old Greek or in Japanese) has been preserved up to the present.
The third anuvaka of Shiksha Valli asserts that everything in the universe is connected. In its theory of "connecting links", it states that letters are joined to form words and words are joined to express ideas, just like earth and heavens are forms causally joined by space through the medium of Vayu (air), and just like the fire and the sun are forms causally connected through lightning with the medium of clouds. It asserts that it is knowledge that connects the teacher and the student through the medium of exposition, while the child is the connecting link between the father and the mother through the medium of procreation. Speech (expression) is the joining link between upper and lower jaw, and it is speech which connects people.
A teacher's prayer - Fourth Anuvāka
The fourth anuvaka of Shiksha Valli is a prayer of the teacher,
May the pupils inquire after me,
May the pupils come to me!
May my pupils venture forth on the way of research, inquiry!
May my pupils practice self-restraint!
May my pupils find peace and tranquility of mind!
As waters rush down the valleys, as the months run into years, O Creator!, hurry towards me the students from all sides!
— Taittirĩya Upanishad,
The structure of the fourth anuvaka is unusual because it starts as a metered verse but slowly metamorphoses into a rhythmic Sanskrit prose. Additionally, the construction of the verse has creative elements that permits multiple translations. The fourth anuvaka is also structured as a liturgical text, with many parts rhythmically ending in Svāhā, a term used when oblations are offered during yajna rituals.
A theory of Oneness and holy exclamations - Fifth and Sixth Anuvāka
The fifth anuvaka declares that "Bhūr! Bhuvaḥ! Svar!" are three holy exclamations, then adds that Bhur is the breathing out, Bhuvah is the breathing in, while Svar is the intermediate step between those two. It also states that "Brahman is Atman (Self), and all deities and divinities are its limbs", that "Self-knowledge is the Eternal Principle", and the human beings who have this Oneness and Self-knowledge are served by the gods.
The second part of the sixth anuvaka of Shiksha Valli asserts that the "Atman (Soul, Self) exists" and when an individual Self attains certain characteristics, it becomes one with Brahman (Cosmic Soul, Eternal Reality). These characteristics are listed as follows in verse.
(When) the Soul attains self-sovereignty, becomes lord of the mind,
it becomes lord of speech, the lord of the eyes, the lord of the ears, the lord of knowledge;
then it becomes Brahman;
its body is the boundless space, its essential nature is the reality, truth;
its playground the life-force, its consciousness a state of bliss,
it exists in serenity, in calmness, in peace,
a state of immortality.
— Taittirĩya Upanishad
The sixth anuvaka ends with exhortation to meditate on this Oneness principle, during Pracina yogya ancient yoga), making it one of the earliest mentions of the practice of meditative Yoga as existent in ancient India.
Parallelism in knowledge and what is Om - Seventh and Eighth Anuvāka
The eighth anuvaka of Taittiriya Upanishad's first chapter discusses what is Aum?
The seventh anuvaka of Shiksha Valli is an unconnected lesson asserting that "everything in this whole world is fivefold" - sensory organs, human anatomy (skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow), breathing, energy (fire, wind, sun, moon, stars), space (earth, aerial space, heavens, poles, intermediate poles). This section does not contextually fit with the sixth or eighth lesson. It is the concluding words of the seventh anuvaka that makes it relevant to the Taittiriya Upanishad, by asserting the idea of fractal nature of existence where the same hidden principles of nature and reality are present in macro and micro forms, there is parallelism in all knowledge. Paul Deussen states that these concluding words of the seventh lesson of Shiksha Valli assert, "there is parallelism between man and the world, microcosm and macrocosm, and he who understands this idea of parallelism becomes there through the macrocosm itself".
The eight anuvaka, similarly, is another seemingly unconnected lesson. It includes an exposition of the syllable word Om ( sometimes spelled Aum), stating that this word is inner part of the word Brahman, it signifies the Brahman, it is this whole world states the eight lesson in the first section of the Taittiriya Upanishad. The verse asserts that this syllable word is used often and for diverse purposes, to remind and celebrate that Brahman. It lists the diverse uses of Om in ancient India, at invocations, at Agnidhra, in songs of the Samans, in prayers, in Sastras, during sacrifices, during rituals, during meditation, and during recitation of the Vedas.
Ethical duties of human beings - Ninth Anuvāka
The ninth anuvaka of Shiksha Valli is a rhythmic recitation of ethical duties of all human beings, where svādhyāya is the "perusal of oneself" (study yourself), and the pravacana is emphasized.
Justice with svādhyāya and pravacana (must be practiced),
Truth with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Tapas with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Damah with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Tranquility and forgiveness with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Fire rituals with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Oblations during fire rituals with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Hospitality to one's guest to the best of one's ability with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Kind affability with all human beings with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Procreation with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Sexual intercourse with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Raising children to the best of one's ability with svādhyāya and pravacana,
Truthfulness opines (sage) Satyavacā Rāthītara,
Tapas opines (sage) Taponitya Pauruśiṣṭi,
Svādhyāya and pravacana opines (sage) Naka Maudgalya
– because that is tapas, that is tapas.
— Taittirīya Upanishad
The tenth anuvaka is obscure, unrelated lesson, likely a corrupted or incomplete surviving version of the original, according to Paul Deussen. It is rhythmic with Mahabrihati Yavamadhya meter, a mathematical "8+8+12+8+8" structure.
Max Muller translates it as an affirmation of one's Self as a capable, empowered blissful being. The tenth anuvaka asserts, "I am he who shakes the tree. I am glorious like the top of a mountain. I, whose pure light (of knowledge) has risen, am that which is truly immortal, as it resides in the sun. I (Soul, Self) am the treasure, wise, immortal, imperishable. This is the teaching of the Veda, by sage Trisanku." Shankara states that the tree is a metaphor for the empirical world, which is shaken by knowledge and realization of Atman-Brahman (Self, eternal reality and hidden invisible principles).
Convocation address to graduating students, living ethically - Eleventh Anuvāka
The eleventh anuvaka of Shiksha Valli is a list of golden rules which the Vedic era teacher imparted to the graduating students as the ethical way of life. The verses ask the graduate to take care of themselves and pursue Dharma, Artha and Kama to the best of their abilities. Parts of the verses in section 1.11.1, for example, state
Never err from Truth,
Never err from Dharma,
Never neglect your well-being,
Never neglect your health,
Never neglect your prosperity,
Never neglect Svādhyāya (study of oneself) and Pravacana (exposition of Vedas).
— Taittirĩya Upanishad
The eleventh anuvaka of Shiksha Valli list behavioral guidelines for the graduating students from a gurukul,
Be one to whom a mother is as god, be one to whom a father is as god,
Be one to whom an Acharya (spiritual guide, scholars you learn from) is as god, be one to whom a guest is as god.
Let your actions be uncensurable, none else.
Those acts that you consider good when done to you, do those to others, none else.
— Taittirĩya Upanishad
The third section of the eleventh anuvaka lists charity and giving, with faith, sympathy, modesty and cheerfulness, as ethical precept for the graduating students.
Scholars have debated whether the guidelines to morality in this Taittiriya Upanishad anuvaka are consistent with the "Know yourself" spirit of the Upanishads. Adi Shankara states that they are, because there is a difference between theory and practice, learning the need for Self-knowledge and the ethics that results from such Self-knowledge is not same as living practice of the same. Ethical living accelerates Self-knowledge in the graduate.
Graduating student's acknowledgment - Twelfth Anuvāka
The last anuvaka (lesson) of Taittiriya Upanishad, just like the first anuvaka, starts with benedictions, wherein Vedic deities are once again proclaimed to be manifestations of Brahman (Cosmic Soul, Unchanging Reality). Along with the benedictions, the last anuvaka includes an acknowledgment that mirrors the promise in first anuvaka,
I have spoken what is right,
I have spoken what is true,
It has gratified me, it has gratified the teacher!
It has satisfied me, it satisfied the teacher!
Om! Peace! Peace! Peace!
The second chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad, namely Ananda
Valli and sometimes called Brahmananda Valli, focuses like other ancient
Upanishads on the theme of Atman (Self, Soul). It asserts that "Atman exists",
it is Brahman, and realizing it is the highest, empowering, liberating knowledge.
The Ananda Valli asserts that knowing one's Self is the path to freedom from all
concerns, fears and to a positive state of blissful living.
The Ananda Valli is remarkable for its Kosha theory (or Layered Maya theory), expressing that man reaches his highest potential and understands the deepest knowledge by a process of learning the right and unlearning the wrong. Real deeper knowledge is hidden in layers of superficial knowledge, but superficial knowledge is easier and simplistic. The Ananda Valli classifies these as concentric layers (sheaths) of knowledge-seeking. The outermost layer it calls Annamaya which envelops and hides Pranamaya, which in turn envelops Manomaya, inside which is Vijnanamaya, and finally the Anandamaya which the Upanishad states is the innermost, deepest layer.
The Ananda Valli asserts that Self-knowledge is "not" attainable by cultic worship of God or gods motivated by egoistic cravings and desires (Manomaya). Vijnanamaya or one with segregated knowledge experiences the deeper state of existence but it too is insufficient. The complete, unified and blissful state of Self-knowledge is, states Ananda Valli, that where one becomes one with all reality, there is no separation between object and subject, I and we, Atman and Brahman. Realization of Atman is a deep state of absorption, oneness, communion.
The Ananda valli is one of the earliest known theories in history on the nature of man and knowledge, and resembles but pre-dates the Hellenistic Hermetic and Neoplatonic theories recorded in different forms about a millennium later, such as those expressed in the Corpus Hermetica.
The first anuvaka commences by stating the premise and a summary of the entire Ananda Valli.
One who knows Brahman, reaches the highest. Satya (reality, truth) is Brahman, Jnana (knowledge) is Brahman,
Ananta (infinite) is Brahman.— Taittiriya Upanishad
Paul Deussen notes that the word Ananta in verse 1 may be vulgate, and a related term Ananda, similarly pronounced, is more consistent with the teachings of other Upanishads of Hinduism, particularly one of its central premise of Atman being sat-chit-ananda. In Deussen's review and translation, instead of "Brahman is infinite", an alternate expression would read "Brahman is bliss".
The second anuvaka of Ananda Valli then proceeds to explain the first layer of man's nature and knowledge-seeking to be about "material man and material nature", with the metaphor of food. The Taittiriya Upanishad asserts that both "material man and material nature" are caused by Brahman, are manifestations of Brahman, are Brahman, but only the outermost shell or sheath of existence. The verse offers relational connection between natural elements, asserting that everything is food to something else in universe at the empirical level of existence, either at a given time, or over time. All creatures are born out of this "food provided by nature and food provided by life with time". All creatures grow due to food, and thus are interdependent. All creatures, upon their death, become food in this food-chain, states Ananda Valli's second verse. Learning, knowing and understanding this "food chain" material nature of existence and the interdependence is the first essential, yet outermost incomplete knowledge.
The second inner level of nature and knowledge-seeking is about life-force, asserts Ananda Valli's third anuvaka. This life-force is identified by and dependent on breathing. Gods breathe, human beings breathe, animals breathe, as do all beings that exist. Life-force is more than material universe, it includes animating processes inside the being, particularly breathing, and this layer of nature and knowledge is Pranamaya kosha.
The next inner, deeper layer of nature and knowledge-seeking relates to Manas (mind, thought, will, wish), or Manomaya kosha. Manas, asserts the fourth anuvaka of Ananda Valli, exists only in individual forms of beings. It is characterized by the power to will, the ability to wish, and the striving for prosperity through actions on the empirical nature, knowledge and beings.The verse of fourth anuvaka add that this knowledge is essential yet incomplete, that it the knowledge of Brahman that truly liberates, and one who knows Atman-Brahman "dreads nothing, now and never" and "lives contently, in bliss".
The fifth anuvaka of Ananda Valli states that the "manomaya kosha" (thought, will, wish) envelops a deeper more profound layer of existence, which is the "vijnana-maya kosha" (knowledge, ethics, reason). This is the realm of knowledge observed in all human beings. The vijnana-maya is characterized by faith, justice, truth, yoga and mahas (power to perceive and reason). The individual who is aware of vijnana-maya, asserts the verses of Ananda Valli, offers knowledge as the work to others.
The sixth, seventh and eighth anuvaka of Ananda Valli states that the "vijnanamaya kosha" (knowledge, ethics, reason) envelops the deepest, hidden layer of existence, which is the "ananda-maya kosha" (bliss, tranquility, contentness). This is the inner most is the realm of Atman-Brahman (Soul, Self, spirituality). The ananda-maya is characterized by love, joy, cheerfulness, bliss and Brahman. The individuals who are aware of ananda-maya, assert the sixth to eighth verses of Ananda Valli, are those who simultaneously realize the empirical and the spiritual, the conscious and unconscious, the changing and the eternal, the time and the timeless.
These last anuvakas of the second Valli of Tattiriya Upanishad assert that he who has Self-knowledge is well constituted, he realizes the essence, he is full of bliss. He exists in peace within and without, his is a state of calm joy irrespective of circumstances, he is One with everything and everyone. He fears nothing, he fears no one, he lives his true nature, he is free from pride, he is free from guilt, he is beyond good and evil, he is free from craving desires and thus all the universe is in him and is his. His blissful being is Atman-Brahman, and Atman-Brahman is the bliss that is he.
The third Valli of Tattiriya Upanishad repeats the ideas of Ananda Valli, through a legend about sage Bhrigu. The chapter is also similar in its themes and focus to those found in chapter 3 of Kausitaki Upanishad and chapter 8 of Chandogya Upanishad. The Bhrigu Valli's theme is the exposition of the concept of Atman-Brahman (self, soul) and what it means to be a self-realized, free, liberated human being.
The first six anuvakas of Bhrigu Valli are called Bhargavi Varuni Vidya, which means "the knowledge Bhrigu got from (his father) Varuni". It is in these anuvakas that sage Varuni advises Bhrigu with one of the oft-cited definition of Brahman, as "that from which beings originate, through which they live, and in which they re-enter after death, explore that because that is Brahman". This thematic, all encompassing, eternal nature of reality and existence develops as the basis for Bhrigu's emphasis on introspection and inwardization, to help peel off the outer husks of knowledge, in order to reach and realize the innermost kernel of spiritual Self-knowledge.
The last four of the ten anuvakas of Bhrigu Valli build on this foundation, but once again like Ananda Valli, use the metaphor of "food" as in Ananda Valli. As with Ananda Valli, in Bhrigu Valli, everything and everyone is asserted to be connected and deeply inter-related to everything and everyone else, by being food (of energy, of material, of knowledge). "Food is founded on food", asserts verse 3.9 of Taittiriya Upanishad, which then illustrates the idea with the specific example "earth is founded on (food for) space, and space is founded on (food for) earth".
Bliss is Brahman;
from bliss beings are born;
by bliss, when born, they live;
into bliss they enter at their death.— Sixth Anuvāka, Bhrigu Valli, Taittiriya Upanishad
After discussing the nature of Brahman, the Bhrigu Valli chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad recommends the following maxims and vows:
The Taittiriya Upanishad closes with the following declaration,
O wonderful! O wonderful! O wonderful!
I am food (object)! I am food! I am food!
I am the eater of food (subject)! I am the eater of food! I am the eater of food!
I am the poet (who joins the two together)! I am the poet! I am the poet!
The first-born of the Ṛta I am,
Prior to Gods I am,
In the source point of the eternal I am,
I am the one who distributes myself, refreshing myself therewith,
Because I am food (for others), and I eat the eater of food,
I am elevated over this whole world,
I am radiant as the sun.
Whosoever understands this, attains liberation.— Bhrigu Valli, Taittiriya Upanishad
Though a number of commentaries were published on the Taittiriya Upanishad in Sanskrit and Indian languages through the years, including popular ones by Shankara, Sayanana and Ramanuja, the first European translations of the work began to appear in 1805, upto the early 1900s. They began to appear in English, German and French, primarily by Max Muller, Griffith, Muir, and Wilson, all of whom were either western academics based in Europe or in colonial India. The Taittiriya Upanishad was first translated in Non Indian languages Jacqueline Hirst, in her analysis of Adi Shankara's works, states that Taittiriya Upanishad Bhasya provides one of his key exegesis. Shankara presents Knowledge and Truth as different, non-superimposable but interrelated. Knowledge can be right or wrong, correct or incorrect, a distinction that principles of Truth and Truthfulness help distinguish. Truth cleanses knowledge, helping man understand the nature of empirical truths and hidden truths (invisible laws and principles, spirit/soul/self). Together states Shankara in his Taittiriya Upanishad Bhasya, Knowledge and Truth point to Oneness of all, Brahman as nothing other than Self, Soul in every human being.
Paul Horsch, in his review of the historical development of Dharma concept and ethics in Indian philosophies, includes Taittiriya Upanishad as among the ancient influential texts. Kirkwood makes a similar observation.
Bhatta states that Taittiriya Upanishad is one of earliest expositions of education system in ancient Indian culture.
Paul Deussen, in his preface to Taittiriya Upanishad's translation, states that Ananda Valli chapter of Taittiriya Upanishad is "one of the most beautiful evidences of the ancient Indian's deep absorption in the mystery of nature and of the inmost part of the human being".
Koshas within meditative state